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朱英1,胡双庆1,沈根祥1,*,张洪昌1,杨灿2. 2种典型家用消毒剂对水生生物的急性毒性影响及生态效应阈值研究[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(4): 161-169
2种典型家用消毒剂对水生生物的急性毒性影响及生态效应阈值研究
The Study of Acute Toxicity Effects on Aquatic Organisms and Acute Ecological Threshold (PNECs) of Two Typical Household Disinfectants
投稿时间:2018-01-22  修订日期:2018-03-27
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20180122003
中文关键词:  家用消毒剂  对氯间二甲苯酚  次氯酸钠  淡水水生生物  毒性效应  物种敏感度分布  急性生态效应阈值
英文关键词:household disinfectant  parachlormetaxylenol (PCMX)  sodium hypochlorite  freshwater aquatic organisms  toxicity effects  species sensitivity distribution  acute predicted no effect concentration
基金项目:上海市环境科学研究院科技创新基金(CX201605)
作者单位
朱英1,胡双庆1,沈根祥1,*,张洪昌1,杨灿2 1.上海市环境科学研究院上海 200233 2. 华东理工大学上海 200237 
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中文摘要:
      家用消毒剂大量用于日常生活中,进入水体环境后对水生生物产生潜在危害效应,目前尚缺乏保护水生生物安全的生态效应阈值。本研究以2种典型家用消毒剂(有效成分分别为对氯间二甲苯酚和次氯酸钠,前者命名为消毒剂A、后者为消毒剂B)为研究对象,开展其对8种不同营养级淡水水生生物的急性毒性效应研究。结果表明,除底栖动物外,消毒剂B对藻类、溞类和鱼类的急性毒性均高于消毒剂A;我国本土种稀有鮈鲫对2种消毒剂的敏感性高于其他2种鱼类;2种消毒剂对藻类的毒性高低均为近头状伪蹄形藻>斜生栅藻>蛋白核小球藻;近头状伪蹄形藻对2种消毒剂最敏感。基于上述毒性数据构建了物种敏感分布(SSD)曲线, 计算对保护95%的物种不受影响时所对应的污染物浓度(HC5),并结合评估因子法推导出2种消毒剂预测无效应浓度(PNEC)值作为急性生态效应阈值,消毒剂A和消毒剂B的PNEC值分别为13.16 mg L-1(有效成分对氯间二甲苯酚PNEC值为0.33 mg L-1)和0.71 mg L-1(有效成分次氯酸钠PNEC值为0.01 mg L-1),消毒剂A对淡水生物的PNEC比消毒剂B大了一个数量级,表明相较于消毒剂B,消毒剂A对水生态环境更为友好。本研究结果可为制订典型家用消毒剂的水质基准提供科学依据。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Zhu Ying1, Hu Shuangqing1, Shen Genxiang1,*, Zhang Hongchang1, Yang Can21. Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China 2. East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
英文摘要:
      Household disinfectants are used extensively in daily life, and these are potentially harmful to aquatic organisms after entering the water environment. Currently, there is a lack of ecological effect threshold to protect aquatic biosafety. The acute toxicities of two typical household disinfectants (the effective components of parachlormetaxylenol and sodium hypochlorite, which is named disinfectant A and disinfectant B, respectively) to 8 different nutritive freshwater aquatic organisms were tested and researched in this study. The results showed that the acute toxicity of the disinfectant B to algae, daphnia and fish were higher than that of disinfectant A except for benthic animals. The sensitivity of the Gobiocypris rarus to two disinfectants were higher than Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes. The toxicity results of the two disinfectants to the alga were Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata> Scenedesmus obliquus> Chlorella pyrenoidesa. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is the most sensitive species to two disinfectants. Based on the above toxicity data, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curve were established, and the pollutant concentrations to the protection of 95% of species (HC5) were calculated. Then combined with the evaluation factor method, the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) of two disinfectants were calculated as an acute ecological threshold. The PNEC values of disinfectant A and disinfectant B were 13.16 mg L-1 and 0.71 mg L-1 , respectively (the effective components of parachlormetaxylenol and sodium hypochlorite were 0.33 mg L-1 and 0.01 mg L-1 , respectively). The disinfectant A PNEC value is an order of magnitude larger than the disinfectant B, indicating that disinfectant A is more environmentally friendly than disinfectant B. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the development of water quality criteria for typical household disinfectants.
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