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苍涛,王彦华,吴长兴,王祥云,徐明飞,陈丽萍,王强,蔡磊明,赵学平*. 新烟碱类杀虫剂对蜜蜂的急性毒性及风险评价[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2017, 12(4): 285-292
新烟碱类杀虫剂对蜜蜂的急性毒性及风险评价
Acute Toxicity and Risk Assessment of Neonicotinoid Insecticides to Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)
投稿时间:2017-05-20  修订日期:2017-07-31
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20170520001
中文关键词:  新烟碱类杀虫剂  吡虫啉  蜜蜂  急性毒性  风险评价
英文关键词:neonicotinoid insecticides  imidacloprid  honeybee  acute toxicity  risk assessment
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0201206);浙江省自然科学基金项目(LQ14B070004);公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201303088)
作者单位
苍涛,王彦华,吴长兴,王祥云,徐明飞,陈丽萍,王强,蔡磊明,赵学平* 省部共建国家重点实验室培育基地“浙江省植物有害生物防控重点实验室”农业部农药残留检测重点实验室浙江省农业科学院农产品质量标准研究所杭州 310021 
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中文摘要:
      为新烟碱类杀虫剂合理使用提供科学依据,本研究采用饲喂法和点滴法测定了9种新烟碱类杀虫剂对蜜蜂的急性毒性效应,且根据风险商值法进行了风险评价,氟啶虫酰胺和吡蚜酮作为对照药剂。试验结果表明:6种新烟碱类杀虫剂(噻虫胺、呋虫胺、吡虫啉、烯啶虫胺、氟啶虫胺腈和噻虫嗪)对蜜蜂经口和接触毒性的48 h-LD50值为1.73×10-3 (1.37×10-3~2.45×10-3) ~35.3×10-2 (30.5×10-2~41.4×10-2) μg 蜂-1,均属于高毒级;其次为氯噻啉,该药剂对蜜蜂经口和接触毒性的48 h-LD50值为56.4×10-2 (40.9×10-2~95.5×10-2)和2.05(1.13~3.18) μg 蜂-1,分别为高毒和中毒;而啶虫脒和噻虫啉对蜜蜂经口和接触毒性的48 h-LD50值为2.57 (1.94~3.75)~ 9.85(8.23~11.6) μg 蜂-1,为中毒级。对照药剂氟啶虫酰胺和吡蚜酮对蜜蜂经口和接触毒性的48 h-LD50值均>100 μg 蜂-1,为低毒级。风险评价结果表明:噻虫胺、呋虫胺、吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、氯噻啉、烯啶虫胺和氟啶虫胺腈对蜜蜂具有不可接受的风险,啶虫脒、噻虫啉和对照药剂氟啶虫酰胺、吡蚜酮对蜜蜂的风险可接受。因此,在害虫综合治理中,应谨慎使用新烟碱类杀虫剂,以免对蜜蜂产生严重的毒副作用。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Cang Tao, Wang Yanhua, Wu Changxing, Wang Xiangyun, Xu Mingfei, Chen Liping, Wang Qiang, Cai Leiming, Zhao Xueping*State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Plant Pest Control; Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture; Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
英文摘要:
      To establish a scientific basis for the rational use of neonicotinoid insecticides, the acute toxicities of nine neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees were determined by feeding and dripping methods, and the risk assessment was also performed according to the risk quotient method. Flonicamid and pymetrozine were used as reference substances. Results from 48-h oral and contact toxicities indicated that six neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, sulfoxaflor and thiamethoxam) were highly toxic to honeybees with LD50 values ranging from 1.73×10-3 (1.37×10-3-2.45×10-3) to 35.3×10-2 (30.5×10-2-41.4×10-2) μg bee-1, followed by imidaclothiz that were highly and moderately toxic to honeybees with LD50 values of 56.4×10-2 (40.9×10-2-95.5×10-2) and 2.05 (1.13-3.18) μg bee-1, while acetamiprid and thiacloprid were moderately toxic to honeybees with LD50 values ranging from 2.57 (1.94-3.75) to 9.85 (8.23-11.6) μg bee-1. In contrast, the reference pesticides flonicamid and pymetrozine exhibited low toxicity to the insects with LD50 values > 100 μg bee-1. Results of risk assessment showed that clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram and sulfoxaflor were classified with unacceptable risk, while acetamiprid, thiacloprid and reference substances (flonicamid and pymetrozine) were classified as acceptable risk to honeybees. Therefore, the use of neonicotinoids, should be carefully evaluated by integrated pest management (IPM) programs in order to avoid serious damages to honeybees.
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