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姜锦林1,*,单正军1,2,程燕1,周军英1,2,卜元卿1,2. 常用农药助剂类产品对水生生物效应研究进展[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2017, 12(4): 45-58
常用农药助剂类产品对水生生物效应研究进展
Advances in Ecotoxicological Effects of Common Pesticide Adjuvants on Aquatic Organisms
投稿时间:2016-08-22  修订日期:2016-10-22
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20160822001
中文关键词:  农药  助剂  水生生物  毒性效应  环境安全
英文关键词:pesticide  adjuvant  aquatic organism  toxic effect  environmental safety
基金项目:环保公益性行业科研专项(No. 201309026);国家自然科学基金项目(No. 21407056)
作者单位
姜锦林1,*,单正军1,2,程燕1,周军英1,2,卜元卿1,2 1. 国家环境保护农药环境评价与污染控制重点实验室 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所 南京 210042 2. 南京信息工程大学江苏省大气环境与装备技术协同创新中心 南京 210044 
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中文摘要:
      农药助剂是在农药制剂加工和使用中加入的除农药有效成分以外的其他辅助物质的总称。农药助剂在提高农药制剂药效、改善药剂性能、稳定制剂质量和降低活性成分危害等方面都起着相当重要的作用。几乎所有化学合成的农药原药都需添加农药助剂成为具有实际使用价值的农药制剂。农药助剂本身虽不具备对靶标生物的杀灭作用,但并不意味着其对环境或人体不具有危害性,部分现今仍在流通使用的农药助剂可导致健康危害,如致癌、致畸、致突变、危害神经系统,具有内分泌干扰作用等。截止目前,由于农药施用带来的农药助剂的危害问题很少引起研究人员关注,我国在农药助剂管理方面还是空白,亟需引起管理部门的重视并制订相关的防控法规。农药助剂种类繁多,我国习惯上将其分为非表面活性剂和表面活性剂两大类。本文总结了包括常用溶剂,非离子型、阳离子型和阴离子型表面活性剂在内的常用助剂对藻类、大型溞和鱼类等水生生物的急慢性毒性效应,并综述了烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚类助剂及其降解产物对水生生物的内分泌干扰效应。鉴于农药助剂对生态环境和人类的健康风险,本文还提出了我国农药助剂环境安全管理策略建议。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Jiang Jinlin1,*, Shan Zhengjun1,2, Cheng Yan1, Zhou Junying1,2, Bu Yuanqin1,21. Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042, China 2. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
英文摘要:
      Pesticide adjuvant is a general term for the auxiliary substances except for pesticide active components added during the processing and use of pesticide formulations. Adjuvants can enhance the pesticides performance in the aspect of improving the formulation efficacy, capability and stabilization, and reducing the hazards of active components. Almost all the chemical pesticide technicals are required to process with adjuvants to produce the formulations with actual use value. The adjuvants themselves normally do not have killing effect on the target organisms but that does not mean it is safe for the ecological environment or human health. Some pesticide adjuvants, which are still in use, are proved to have carcinogenicity, teratogenesis and mutagenicity effects, nerval toxicity, and endocrine disruption effects on organisms. So far the risk of adjuvants to the ecological environment caused by pesticide applications is seldom considered by researchers and there is a blank zone existed in the aspect of pesticide adjuvant management in China, which need to cause the administration's attention and develop relevant prevention and control regulations. There are many kinds of pesticide adjuvants, which are usually divided into two types: non surface active agent and surface active agent. In this paper, we summarize the recent development of the acute and chronic toxic effects of common solvents, non-ionic, cationic and anionic surface active agents on the aquatic organisms, including alga, daphnia and fishes. We also summarize the recent development of the endocrine disruption effects of alkyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether and their degradation products on aquatic organisms. In view of the possible risk of pesticide adjuvants to the ecological environment and human health, several suggestions are proposed on the environmental safety management of pesticide adjuvants in China.
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