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Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, February 2015, Volume 10, Number 2 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Principles and Applications of High Content Screening Technology in Ecotoxicology  PDF download
Huang Chao, Yan Ye, Li Na, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian, Deng Dongyang, Yu Hongxia, Zhang Xiaowei, Shi Wei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141115001
Abstract: As a large amount of environmental pollutants may pose hazardous effects on the environment and human beings at low concentrations, evaluating the toxic effects of these chemicals and understanding their mechanisms of action (MOA) are essential for management of chemical environmental risks. Therefore, high-throughput in vitro bioassay methods have been rapidly developed to satisfy the toxicity assessment of countless chemicals. High-content screening (HCS), as a new cell-based screening approach, allows multi-endpoint determination simultaneously in intact cells. This review introduced the principles of HCS and summarized its application in ecotoxicology. Finally, the new developments and challenges of HCS are proposed.
Citation: Huang Chao, Yan Ye, Li Na, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian, Deng Dongyang, Yu Hongxia, Zhang Xiaowei, Shi Wei Principles and Applications of High Content Screening Technology in Ecotoxicology [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 2-17
Progress in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Acute Aquatic Toxicity  PDF download
Liu Yuchen, Qiao Xianliang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141122001
Abstract: Chemical contaminations lead potential risks to both human health and ecological environment. However, the lack of available data on the hazardous properties of chemicals is the major challenge for the risk assessment of chemicals. Non-animal alternative methods are encouraged to fill in data gaps by OECD and US EPA. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) approach is regarded as one promising alternative technique. Information on acute toxicity to aquatic organisms are commonly used in the risk assessment and screening of priority substances. But, the available experimental toxicity data are very limited currently. In this paper, three types of prediction models of acute toxicity are summarized, including (1) models for particular chemical classes; (2) statistically derived models that are developed without an a priori mechanistic hypothesis; (3) models for a given mode or mechanism of action (MOA). The predictive ability, applicability domain and mechanism interpretation of the three type models are compared. QSAR models based on MOA, which generally demonstrate rather good predictive ability and facilitate the interpretation of mechanism meanwhile, will become the main trend for predicting acute toxicity to aquatic organisms.
Citation:Liu Yuchen, Qiao Xianliang Progress in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Acute Aquatic Toxicity[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 18-30
Application of the Aquatic Model Ecosystem in Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals  PDF download
Wang Lei, Liu Jianmei, Liu Jining, Shi Lili
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140210001
Abstract: As a high level test model for ecological risk assessment of chemicals, the aquatic model ecosystem (AME) has been extensively developed, and widely applied in different countries for both single and mixed chemicals, including pesticides, veterinary drugs and heavy metals. However, the regarding studies about AME in China are still insufficient. To optimize our system for hazard assessment of chemicals, AME acts as a critical complement beyond single species test. This paper describes the classification, research approaches and data extrapolation methods of established AMEs. We mainly focus on the discussion of the various application of AMEs in risk assessment of chemicals, including the exposure pathways and fate analysis of single or multiple target chemicals. We have also compared the results derived from AME, single species test or both. This paper also introduces the present application status of AMEs in environmental management of chemicals both abroad and in China. Based on the above analysis and description, we propose the potential solutions to address the current problems of utilizing AMEs in China.
Citation:Wang Lei, Liu Jianmei, Liu Jining, Shi Lili Application of the Aquatic Model Ecosystem in Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 31-39
Application of Passive Dosing in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Measuring Partition Coefficients of Polychlorinated BiphenylsS)  PDF download
Qi Hongxue, Li Huizhen, You Jing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141224001
Abstract: To conduct aquatic ecological risk assessment, credible toxicity data are required, and maintaining stable water concentrations of test contaminants for certain time are the premises of accurate data. Solvent dosing has been conventionally used in aquatic toxicity testing with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), however, continuous reduction in chemical concentrations in water was frequently observed due to volatilization and degradation of chemicals, glassware binding and uptake by organisms. As a consequence, it is hard to achieve accurate concentration–response relationships for test HOCs. To overcome these problems, passive dosing has been recently introduced as a replacement of solvent dosing. Through the equilibrium partitioning of chemicals within dosing systems, HOCs’ concentrations in water could be stabilized and monitored by quantifying chemical concentration in polymers. The definition and material selection of passive dosing are introduced and the recent applications of this method in ecological risk assessment are summarized, including the measurements of chemical partition coefficients, in vitro cell assays, in vivo bioassays, and sediment toxicity evaluation. Then, the procedures of passive dosing are detailed using a case study of measuring partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls between polydimethylsiloxane and water. Lastly, the perspective of passive dosing in aquatic ecological risk assessment is discussed.
Citation: Qi Hongxue, Li Huizhen, You Jing Application of Passive Dosing in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Measuring Partition Coefficients of Polychlorinated BiphenylsS)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 40-57 
Progress in Environment Exposure,Transport and Transform of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants  PDF download
Gao Xiaozhong, Xu Yiping, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150103001
Abstract: Organophosphate esters (OPEs), a group of phosphorus flame retardants, have been more widely used recently as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which have been shown to have potential neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity and genotoxicity, and some of OPEs are also carcinogenic. There is growing concern about OPEs as emerging contaminants with increasing environment emission. This article reviewed the occurrence and exposure of OPEs in water, air, soil and biota, as well as their environmental transport and transformation. Limited information is available on the environmental exposure of OPEs, especially for the biota. Multiple transport routes of OPEs have been validated and interpreted, however, information on physicochemical and/or biological transformation is limited. More researches should be done for the assessment of the contamination and impact of OPEs. At last, the prospects for research in multimedia environmental exposure prediction and further ecological risk assessment of OPEs was proposed.
Citation:Gao Xiaozhong, Xu Yiping, Wang ZijianProgress in Environment Exposure,Transport and Transform of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 58-65
Progress in researches on toxicity of antibiotics in low dose and mixture exposure to microorganisms)  PDF download
Fang Shuxia, JiangLei, Zhu Lihua, Shi Tiantian, Qin Mengnan, Lin Zhifen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141102001
Abstract: Antibiotics have become serious environmental pollutants. Owing to their distinguishing feature of mixing, persistance and low-doses in the environment, a study on the toxicity of antibiotics, especially mixture toxicity and the hormetic effect in the low-dose, is significantly important to the ecological risk assessment. This review mainly focuses on the mixture toxicity of antibiotics and briefly summarizes the acute and chronic toxicity of binary chronic toxicity. Their joint effects are neither a simple addition of their individual effect nor independence of each other. The interactions in the binary mixture of antibiotics exist both in acute and study of acute and chronic toxicity. Meanwhile, it is found that hormetic effect exists not only in the single toxicity but also in the binary toxicity when exposed to the low-dose. However, there are few studies on hormetic phenomenon in the binary mixtures of antibiotics. Therefore, a further study on the prediction and evaluation of the hormesis in mixtures is needed, which can provide a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment.
Citation: Fang Shuxia, JiangLei, Zhu Lihua, Shi Tiantian, Qin Mengnan, Lin Zhifen Progress in researches on toxicity of antibiotics in low dose and mixture exposure to microorganisms)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 66-80
A Review on Environmental Behaviors and Ecotoxicology of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics  PDF download
Meng Lei, Yang Bing, Xue Nandong, Zhang Shilei, Li Fasheng, Liu Hanbing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141118006
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) were the broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs which were widely applied in livestock and poultry breeding industry to treat human and animals bacterial infection. The pollution of FQs in environment has been widely concerned. Environmental behaviors such as adsorption and desorption in water and soil/sediment and ecotoxicology of FQs were summarized in the paper. It is suggested that environmental behaviors and risk of FQs should be assessed at the level of environmental multimedia. More study should be conducted on ecological toxicity mechanism of FQs as well as on effects of the joint toxicity with other environmental pollutants. [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 81-87
The Bioaccumulation and Metabolism of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Fish  PDF download
Hu Junjian, Hu Xialin, Yin Daqiang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141026001
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a class of emerging contaminants, and occured widely in aquatic environment at constant and low concentrations. PPCPs show a potential risk to the aquatic ecosystem and have attracted extensive concerns. Bioaccumulation and metabolism of PPCPs in fish play an important role in hazard and ecological risk assessment of PPCPs. In this paper, we summarized bioaccumulation of PPCPs in fish, and factors that influence the bioaccumulation, such as chemico-physical properties, tissue-specific differences, species of fish, as well as methods to derive bioconcentration factor. The mechanisms in bioaccumulation for PPCPs in fish were overviewed with focus on the introduction of the detoxification and occurrences of metabolic intermediate products of PPCPs in fish bile. Also, the importance of using fish bile for assessing bioaccumulation and their metaboliam were discussed since it is vital on the study of PPCPs in fish. At the end, we prospect for the future research challenges in the field.
Citation:Hu Junjian, Hu Xialin, Yin Daqiang The Bioaccumulation and Metabolism of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Fish [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 88-100
Review on Combined Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Heavy Metals  PDF download
Wang Jingjing, Wang Xinan, Dai Hui, Liu Yun, Xu An
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141008001
Abstract: Although titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have been widely used for years, they may potentially cause environmental pollution and ecological & health risks at the same time. With the increasing release of TiO2-NPs, the combined toxicity of TiO2-NPs and heavy metals have become an important issue and caused great research interests. This review was focused on the combined toxicity of TiO2-NPs and heavy metals including lead, cadmium and arsenic, the existing problems, and the prospective in the field.
Citation:Wang Jingjing, Wang Xinan, Dai Hui, Liu Yun, Xu An Review on Combined Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Heavy Metals [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 101-109
Research Progress in the Environmental Behavior and Water Ecotoxicological Effects of EndosulfanDifferent Trophic Levels PDF download
Wu Huanyang, Ding Shihua
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141015002
Abstract: As a typical persistent organic pollutants, endosulfan, the organochlorine pesticide, has been widely used in agricultural production in China. Endosulfan could go into the water envronment through the surface runoff, leaching and wet/dry deposition, which will have a direct impact on aquatic macroohytes and planktonic algae, and produce a certain amount of toxic effects on fish and other aquatic animals as well. Because of its longer half-life period, better migration abilities and higher enrichment, endosulfan could be detectable widely in the water body, herein the safety evaluation of endosulfan in the aquatic ecosystem is very important. Endosulfan is so highly-toxic to aquatic organisms that it could have influences on normally of biological receptor-ligand function, membrane damage, active oxygen metabolism and have a potential role of endocrine disruption. The environmental behavior effects and several toxic mechanisms of endosulfan on aquatic organisms will be reviewed, and the future prospects in this filed will be also discussed.
Citation:Wu Huanyang, Ding ShihuaResearch Progress in the Environmental Behavior and Water Ecotoxicological Effects of Endosulfan[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 110-118
Current Situation of Chemical Management in Chinese Leather Industry  PDF download
Sang Jun, Wang Mengdi, Yu Lingyun, Zhang Xiaolei, Lin Wei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141102004
Abstract: As a dominant traditional manufacture, leather-making industry in China has brought about some health and environmental risks due to the extensive use of chemicals in leather processing. Environmental pollution is now becoming the key factor that restricts the sustainable development of Chinese leather industry. In this review, the relevant regulations, standards and requirements related to leather chemical safety management at home and abroad have been summarized, which focus on the residue chemicals in leather and its products, and the chemicals in industrial emission of pollutants from leather-making. The current status of chemical safety management in leather industry as well as the existing problems is analyzed. And setting up risk management of high-concern chemicals in leather industry is necessary for economic development and industrial progress.
Citation:Sang Jun, Wang Mengdi, Yu Lingyun, Zhang Xiaolei, Lin Wei Current Situation of Chemical Management in Chinese Leather Industry [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 119-129
Chemical Risk Assessment for the Textile Industry in China   PDF download
Chen Jiangang, Wang Bijia, Zhu Quan, Gao Qinwen, Yang Yiqi
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141119001
Abstract: This review provided an overview of the gap in textile chemical risk management between China and developed countries with regards to regulations, technical guideline development, and chemical risk assessment. Eight issues in the three stages of textile chemical risk assessment were raised and discussed from a practical point of view. For the textile chemical survey stage, three issues were discussed, including the selection of surveyed manufacturers, chemical information transparency and chemical mixture issues. For the database building stage, the missing data problem and the limits of quantitative structure-activity relationship prediction methods were discussed. For the risk assessment stage, three types of toxicity screenings on textile chemicals, namely Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) chemicals, Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reproductive toxic (CMR) chemicals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC), were discussed.
Citation: Chen Jiangang, Wang Bijia, Zhu Quan, Gao Qinwen, Yang Yiqi Chemical Risk Assessment for the Textile Industry in China [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 130-138
Progress on Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Import & Export Chemicals in China  PDF download
Han Wei, Yu Yanjun, Zhang Yong, Li Ningtao, Wang Libing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141118005
Abstract: China is one of the biggest countries for chemical production and trade power. A large number of chemical production, import and export trade in China has brought great challenges for chemical risk management and risk assessment. Based on adopting experiences from foreign and economic organizations about chemical risk management and evaluation technology, China also gradually carried out the management and control for chemicals in recent years, to cope with the increasingly prominent chemical-induced environmental and health safety problems. This article starts from the comparison between China and abroad on chemicals management, reviews the chemicals management policies development in China, focusing on the management and control measures issued by environmental protection departments for toxic and import chemicals, new chemical substances and the discarded hazardous chemicals, and the import and export of industrial chemicals managed by quality inspection department. Meanwhile, the chemicals risk assessment technology is also summarized. Through the comparison with developed countries on chemical risk management and assessment, points out the deficiencies and problems of chemical management and evaluation in China, and puts forward some feasible countermeasures, which provides a certain reference for improving China’s chemical risk management and evaluation.
Citation:Han Wei, Yu Yanjun, Zhang Yong, Li Ningtao, Wang Libing Progress on Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Import & Export Chemicals in China[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 139-150
Silkworm—A New Target for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Screening  PDF download
Shen Weifeng, Meng Zhiqi, Cai Leiming
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140508002
Abstract: The influence of endocrine disrupting-chemicals (EDCs) on human and environment is becoming more and more serious. The challenging tasks for environmental experts are establishing an efficient and rapid screening method to identify the active EDCs from complex environment,and guiding people to avoid unnecessary exposure risk. The article introduces the composition of endocrine system and their associated hormones of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The advantages of silkworm as an ideal candidate for testing EDCs and candidate measurement endpoints are detailed analysis. The feasibility of silkworm as a new EDC test species are also discussed from the perspective of theory and methods.
Citation: Wang Juying, Mu Jingli, Wang Ying Silkworm—A New Target for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Screening [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 151-159
Research Articles
Development and Evaluation for a Predictive Model of (Subcooled) Vapor Pressure of Organic Chemicals at Different Temperatures  PDF download
Zhao Wenxing, Li Xuehua, Fu Zhiqiang, Chen Jingwen, Li Xiao, Li Na, Rao Kaifeng, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141124001
Abstract: The (subcooled) liquid vapor pressure (PL) is an important parameter to assess the distribution, transport and fate of organic chemicals in the environment. PL possesses strong temperature-dependence. In order to fill the gap of the data for the ecological risk assessment, it is of significance to develop an effective tool for predicting PL at different temperatures. In this study, overall 10 478 logPL values of 661 compounds at different temperatures are collected and used to develop two models, a partial least square (PLS) regression linear model and a support vector machine (SVM) nonlinear model. Results reveal that both models have satisfactory goodness-of-fit, robustness and external predictive performance. The predictive performance of SVM model is slightly better than that of PLS model (PLS: R2adj.tra = 0.912, RMSEtra=0.477, Q2ext = 0.910; SVM: R2adj.tra=0.997, RMSEtra = 0.092, Q2ext = 0.967). Mechanistic explanation shows that the PL of organic chemicals is mainly influenced by the temperature and X1sol (intermolecular dispersive forces). Increasing temperature and decreasing intermolecular dispersive forces lead to the increase of logPL values. Moreover, the number of hydrogen bond, dipole and the molecular structure can also exert influence on PL values. The applicability domain of the PLS model was characterized by the Williams plot. The developed models can be used to predict logPL values of alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, benzene, phenol, biphenyl, halogenatearomatic hydrocarbonsas well as N- and S-containing chemicals.
Citation: Zhao Wenxing, Li Xuehua, Fu Zhiqiang, Chen Jingwen, Li Xiao, Li Na, Rao Kaifeng, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian Development and Evaluation for a Predictive Model of (Subcooled) Vapor Pressure of Organic Chemicals at Different Temperatures[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 160-168
In Silico Prediction of Chemical Bioconcentration Factor  PDF download
Sun Lu, Chen Yingjie, Wu Zengrui, Li Weihua, Liu Guixia, Philip W. Lee, Tang Yun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141205001
Abstract: Bioconcentration is an important endpoint in evaluation of chemical adverse effects on ecosystems. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict chemical bioconcentration factor (BCF). At first a data set containing 624 chemicals with BCF values was collected from the Estimation Program Interface Suite of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Using seven fingerprints to represent the molecules, binary classification models were developed with five machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree (C4.5 DT), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), random forest (RF), and Naïve Bayes (NB). Reliable predictive models were then obtained and validated by 10-fold cross validation and external validation set. Among them, the model built by SVM with ChemoTyper fingerprint performed best, with predictive accuracy up to 85.4%. Moreover, some substructures were identified to be key for bioconcentration via several methods, such as arylchloride, diarylether, chloroalkene, and so on. The approaches used in this study provide a useful tool for environmental risk assessment of chemicals.
Citation:Sun Lu, Chen Yingjie, Wu Zengrui, Li Weihua, Liu Guixia, Philip W. Lee, Tang Yun In Silico Prediction of Chemical Bioconcentration Factor [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 169-181
CoMFA and CoMSIA Studies of N-substitued Fluoroacetamide Structures with Acute Toxicity  PDF download
Yu Yanjun, Zhang Yong, Han Wei, Su Rongxin, Wang Libing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141118003
Abstract: Using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were carried out to calculate the in vivo acute toxicity toward rats of N-substituted fluoroacetamides based on the data of nineteen chemicals. The effects of different groups of steric and electrostatic field on the acute toxicity of fluoroacetamides were discussed in terms of cross validation correlation coefficient (Q2) and non-cross validated correlation coefficient (R2), which were introduced as the characterization of the model efficiency. Results show that the best CoMFA model included electrostatic and steric fields with the cross-validate regress coefficient Q2 of 0.563 and noncross-validate regress coefficient R2 of 0.992 is better than two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship. The acute toxicity is mainly determined by steric field. On the other hand, CoMSIA analysis while only includes steric field is better than CoMFA model with the best result of Q2=0.767. Steric and hydrophobic fields contribute the most to CoMSIA prediction, while electrostatic field contributes the least.
Citation: Yu Yanjun, Zhang Yong, Han Wei, Su Rongxin, Wang Libing CoMFA and CoMSIA Studies of N-substitued Fluoroacetamide Structures with Acute Toxicity[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 182-190
Time-dependent Microplate Toxicity Analysis (T-MTA) of Several Antibiotics to Chlorella pyrenoidosa   PDF download
Chen Qiong, Zhang Jin, Li Xiaomeng, Liu Lei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140630004
Abstract: Antibiotics probably have different toxicity features in different exposure times. Selecting Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) as a test organism, 96-well microplate as exposure experiment carrier and five antibiotics, apramycin sulfate, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin sesquisulfate, neomycin sulfate and strepomycin sulfate, as test chemicals, a time-dependent microplate toxicity analysis (T-MTA) was developed. Using the T-MTA, the time-dependent toxicities of the five antibiotics on C. pyrenoidosa were determined at six exposure time points such as 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that the toxicities of the antibiotics exhibited significant time-dependent features, i.e., they had almost no toxicities on C. pyrenoidosa at first, then their toxicities increased rapidly, and finally increased slowly. However, the antibiotics had different increasing rates for the time-dependent toxicities. The toxicities of five antibiotics were different at the same exposure time. Moreover, the orders of toxicity of the antibiotics at different exposure times were different
Citation: Chen Qiong, Zhang Jin, Li Xiaomeng, Liu Lei Time-dependent Microplate Toxicity Analysis (T-MTA) of Several Antibiotics to Chlorella pyrenoidosa [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 191-203

 

Effect of PFOS on Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC12 Cells   PDF download
Liu Xiaohui, Li Zhenwei, Liu Chang, Zhu Chunyan, Qian Bo, Shao Jing, Hu Hong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140630001
Abstract: To investigate the neurotoxic effect of per?uorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its underlying mechanism, the PC12 cells were exposed to 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 μmol•L-1 PFOS. Cells were then evaluated on viability using MTT, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA, apoptosis by Hoechst 33342/PI kit, and number of lysosomes by specific dye, Lyso-Tracker Red. We further employed the real time RT-PCR to evaluate some genes that may differentially express during autophagy, such as Atg 5, Atg 12 and Beclin 1. Compared to control cells, the viability of cells exposed to 250 or 500 μmol•L-1 PFOS was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the increases in apoptosis and ROS production were observed in cells exposed to 62.5 μmol•L-1 PFOS and above. There were also increases in the number of lysosomes and the gene expression of Atg 5, Atg 12 and Beclin 1 in cells exposed to 125, 250, 500 μmol•L-1 PFOS (P<0.05), respectively. Our data suggest that autophagy and apoptosis might be involved in PFOS-induced death in PC12.
Citation:Liu Xiaohui, Li Zhenwei, Liu Chang, Zhu Chunyan, Qian Bo, Shao Jing, Hu Hong Effect of PFOS on Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC12 Cells [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 204-214
The Effect of Exercise on the Activity of Liver Microsomal Oxidase in 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) –Exposed Rats  PDF download
Yan Huiping, Zhang Chi, Du Le, Song Xiaobo, Ding Xiaomin, Wei Dongyang, Xu Zhencheng, Lu Yifan
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20131214001
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise on the activity of liver microsomal oxidase in acute 2,3,7,8-TCDD-exposed rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal toxic (NT), exercise control (EC), and exercise toxic (ET). The rats in NC and ET groups were intraperitoneal injection of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (10 µg•kg-1); the NC and EC animals were administered with equivalent volume of coin oil, and the rats in exercise groups were submitted to swimming for 30 min•d-1 with 5% weights attached to tails. After 4 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the livers were immediately isolated and weighted. The lobe of each liver was kept at -80 °C for detecting the activity of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA. A decreased body weight together with increased liver weight, relative liver weight, and the activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) were observed in toxic group; an increased relative liver weight and the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) were observed in exercise group; and exercise could effectively prevent the activation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the activities of EROD and ECOD. The results suggest that acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD can increase the relative liver weight, and exercise can effectively prevent the activation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the activities of EROD and ECOD.
Citation: Yan Huiping, Zhang Chi, Du Le, Song Xiaobo, Ding Xiaomin, Wei Dongyang, Xu Zhencheng, Lu Yifan The Effect of Exercise on the Activity of Liver Microsomal Oxidase in 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) –Exposed Rats[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 215-224
Study on DNA-Protein Crosslinks Induced by Trichlorfon in Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte of Mice  PDF download
Zhang Yong, He Qi, Lu Li, Yang Hong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20131126003
Abstract: In order to study DNA-protein crosslinks(DPC) of trichlorfon on peripheral blood lymphocyte in mice, mice were orally administrated with trichlorfon daily for 14 days at the concentrations of 0、20、40、60 mg•kg-1 respectively. The fifth group as positive control group was established by extracting the peripheral blood in mice treated with 50 μmol•L-1 hydrogen peroxide. The DPC effects of trichlorfon were measured by comet assay. The results indicated that every group can cause the DNA damaged(P<0.01) and lead to DPC effects compared with the blank group. Moreover, DPC is highly obvious when at high concentrations(40、60 mg•kg-1), which suggested there was a risk of potential mutation.
Citation:Zhang Yong, He Qi, Lu Li, Yang Hong Study on DNA-Protein Crosslinks Induced by Trichlorfon in Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte of Mice[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 225-234
Effects of Cd and Al2O3-NPs Co-exposure on Bioaccumulation of Cd and Antioxidase Enzyme Activities in Bellamya aeroginosa  PDF download
Long Yi, Liu Shanshan, Wang Meng, Ma Taowu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141016001
Abstract: The widespread applications of metal oxide nanoparticles lead to unintentional release of these materials into aquatic environments, the unique physico-chemical properties may potentially alter the ecotoxicity of co-existing contaminants, such as heavy metals. In this work, the dynamics of Cd accumulation and the effects of Cd on two key components of antioxidant defense system, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation index malondialdehyde (MDA), and phase Ⅱ biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-tansferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of Bellamya aeroginosa, a benthic macroinvertebrate, were investigated in the presence of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) by applying chronic exposure to assess the impacts of Al2O3-NPs on ecotoxicity of Cd. The results showed that Al2O3-NPs had no significant effect on Cd bioaccumulation at low Cd concentration (5 μg?g-1). By contrast, Cd bioaccumulation was significantly enhanced by Al2O3-NPs at medium and high Cd concentration (25 and 100 μg?g-1), indicating obvious carrier effect of Al2O3-NPs on Cd biotransport. At low Cd concentration, SOD activities in treatments with or without Al2O3-NPs, had no significant difference compared to the controls; at medium Cd concentration, SOD activities in all treatments significantly increased. But at high Cd concentration SOD activities significantly decreased, and moreover SOD activities in treatments with Al2O3-NPs were statistically lower than those in treatments without Al2O3-NPs, indicating the presence of Al2O3-NPs aggravated oxidative stress or damage caused by Cd. For MDA, at high Cd concentration, MDA levels in treatments with or without Al2O3-NPs significantly increased, but MDA levels in treatments with Al2O3-NPs were lower than those in treatments without Al2O3-NPs, which further testified the enhancement of Al2O3-NPs on oxidative damage by Cd. As for GST, at medium and high Cd concentration, GST activities in treatments with or without Al2O3-NPs significantly decreased, but GST activities in treatments with Al2O3-NPs were significantly lower than those in treatments without Al2O3-NPs, which also confirmed above enhancement effects. Overall, our study provided the evidence that Al2O3-NPs enhanced Cd bioaccumulation in the sediment-zoobenthos system, and the change of Cd toxicity coincided with the body burden of Cd, at medium and high Cd concentration, high levels of Cd bioaccumulation enhanced ecotoxicity of Cd on B. aeroginosa.
Citation:Long Yi, Liu Shanshan, Wang Meng, Ma TaowuEffects of Cd and Al2O3-NPs Co-exposure on Bioaccumulation of Cd and Antioxidase Enzyme Activities in Bellamya aeroginosa [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 235-244
Effects of bisphenol A on Physicochemical properties and DNA Damage of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human embryo liver cell  PDF download
Liu Yanjie, Zhang Yanhong, Lu Bin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141102003
Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) have been used widely and may react with a wide range of organic and biological molecules and then exhibit toxic effects in various cell lines, with or without photo activation. The effects of the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) with bisphenol A(BPA) on their physicochemical properties and DNA damage effects in human embryo L-02 hepatocytes were evaluated. Different concentrations of BPA (0, 0.1, 1, 10 µmol•L-1 ) and nano-TiO2 (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg•L-1) were mixed to analyze the size distribution, zeta potential and adsorption capacity of nano-TiO2 in different media. Then L-02 cells were exposed to different concentration of BPA (0, 0.1, 1, 10 µmol•L-1) and nano-TiO2 (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg•L-1)for 24 hours, respectively. DNA damage and the expression of DNA repair enzymes O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and hMSH2 in L-02 cells were analyzed. Results indicated that addition of BPA to nano-TiO2 dispersions increased the aggregation level and zeta potential of nano-TiO2 in all media. Nano-TiO2 had a similar adsorption capacity in different media, although a higher aggregation level was observed in cell culture medium. Obviously, Interactions of nano-TiO2 with BPA increased agglomeration and zeta potential, but did not influence the adsorption capacity of nano-TiO2. The aggregated nano-TiO2 can enrich BPA effectively. Toxicity analysis showed that nano-TiO2 did not induce significant DNA damage, but the mixture of nano-TiO2 and BPA increased DNA double strand breaks and the expression of three DNA repair enzymes. It is clear that BPA and nano-TiO2 mixture induce synergistic DNA damage effects. And hMSH2, MGMT and DNA-PKcs are all participated in the DNA damage repair pathway induced by the mixture of BPA and nano-TiO2.
Citation:Liu Yanjie, Zhang Yanhong, Lu Bin Effects of bisphenol A on Physicochemical properties and DNA Damage of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human embryo liver cell [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 245-251
Ecotoxicity of Alternatives of Typical Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) to Four Native Aquatic Organisms  PDF download
Wang Miao, Chen Huihui, Zha Jinmiao, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141022001
Abstract: To provide a scientific basis for selecting safe and efficient substitutes, ecotoxicity of four PFOS alternatives (surfactant, textile finishing agent, C4 finishing agent and C6 finishing agent) to four native aquatic organisms (Soirodela polyrhiza, Scenedesmus quadricanda, Daphnia pulex and Gobiocypris rarus) was assessed. The results showed that surfactant had no acute toxic to these four native aquatic organisms. LC50 of textile finishing agent, C4 finishing agent and C6 finishing agent on Daphnia pulex in acute toxicity test were 17.97, 64.61 and 85.58 mg•L-1, respectively. EC50 of textile finishing agent on Daphnia pulex was 88.32 mg•L-1, whereas LC50 on Gobiocypris rarus was 14.79 mg•L-1. In short-term growth inhibition test, LOEC of surfactant, textile finishing agent, C4 finishing agent and C6 finishing agent on Gobiocypris rarus were 20, 1.5, 100 and 50 mg•L-1, respectively. These results indicated that the four alternatives have low chronic toxicity to Gobiocypris rarus. Above all, C4 and C6 finishing agent could be able to potential PFOS alternatives.
Citation: Wang Miao, Chen Huihui, Zha Jinmiao, Wang Zijian Ecotoxicity of Alternatives of Typical Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) to Four Native Aquatic Organisms [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 252-262
The Toxicological Effects and Mechanisms of BDE-47 on HEK293 Cells  PDF download
Cao Lulu, Li Fei, Wu Huifeng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141205002
Abstract: Three BDE-47 concentration groups (low: 10-6 mol•L-1, medium: 10-5 mol•L-1, high: 10-4 mol•L-1) and one control group were chosen to investigate the toxic effects of BDE-47 on HEK293 cells, including cell apoptosis ratio and ROS level. Furthermore, the abundance of several proteins (APE1 and p53) and expression level of p53, Bax, Caspase 8 were also detected at molecular level. It was found that cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the medium and high concentration groups (P< 0.05) compared with the control. ROS level also increased significantly in the medium concentration group (P< 0.01). With the increase of BDE-47 concentrations, the variation trend of APE1 abundance was coincident with that of ROS level. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax and Caspase 8) was up-regulated with the increase of BDE-47 concentrations. These results showed that BDE-47 could cause several toxic effects on HEK293 cells, including induction of cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. APE1 was perhaps an important mediator of cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. BDE-47 could induce cell apoptosis by affecting the expression of Caspase 8 and p53, Bax through the mitochondria signal pathway.
Citation:Cao Lulu, Li Fei, Wu Huifeng The Toxicological Effects and Mechanisms of BDE-47 on HEK293 Cells[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 263-270
Inhibition Effect of Alachlor on Glutathione S-transferase of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae)  PDF download
Li Xiuwei, Xiao Xinlei, Liang Yaping, Zhang Chunping, Zhang Shulan, Gu Zumin, Qi Zhiqiu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141119004
Abstract: Glutathione S-transferases (GST) is an important detoxi?cation enzyme of the organisms. To investigate the inhibition effect and the mechanism of the environmental hormone pesticide alachlor against GST of Chironomus riparius, the inhibition activity and inhibition type of alachlor against fourth-instar larvae of C. riparius were determined by microtitration assay. The results showed that alachlor significantly inhibited GST activities both in vivo 72 h exposure and in vitro, and the inhibition degree increased in an alachlor concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition reaction of alachlor on GST was reversible. Further analysis of enzyme kinetics revealed that the inhibition was competitive with specific substrate of 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and reduced Glutathione (GSH), that was to say that alachlor did not change the Vm value of enzymatic reaction, but affected the michaelis constant (Km). These results suggested that the GST activities of aquatic midge could be significantly affected by the pesticide residue of alachlor, while the inhibition mechanism of alachlor on GST was reversible and competitive.
Citation: Wang Tong, Sun Fu, Zeng Siyu, He Miao, Chen Jining Inhibition Effect of Alachlor on Glutathione S-transferase of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 271-280
Comparison on Acute Toxicity of Bisphenol A with Its Substitutes to Pelophylax nigromaculatus  PDF download
Li Yuanyuan, Fu Xufeng, Zhao Yaxian, Su Hongqiao, Qin Zhanfen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140513002
Abstract: Little is known about toxic effects of bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), although they have been used widely as BPA substitutes. To compare acute toxicity between BPF/BPS and BPA, the lethal concentrations 50% (LC50), minimum concentration to inhibit growth (MCIG) and teratogenic rate were measured for Pelophylax nigromaculatus embryos and tadpoles. It was found that 96 h-exposure to 100 mg•L-1 BPS caused no malformation and death of P. nigromaculatus embryos and tadpoles. The 96 h-LC50 values of BPA and BPF for embryos were 7.68 mg•L-1and 7.99 mg•L-1, with 4.47 mg•L-1 and 4.77 mg•L-1 for the MCIG values, respectively. The maximum teratogenic rates both are 33.33%. The 96 h-LC50 values of BPA and BPF for tadpoles are 9.00 mg•L-1 and 9.52 mg•L-1, respectively. The results showed that BPF was comparable to BPA in term of acute toxicity, while acute toxicity of BPS was considerably lower than that of BPA. According to toxicity grading standards of guidelines on environmental safety assessment for chemical pesticides, BPA and BPF are determined as medium toxic chemicals to P. nigromaculatus embryos and tadpoles, with BPS as a low toxic chemical. Our study can provide a helpful reference for the production and use of BPF and BPS, and also the corresponding environmental management.
Citation:Li Yuanyuan, Fu Xufeng, Zhao Yaxian, Su Hongqiao, Qin Zhanfen Comparison on Acute Toxicity of Bisphenol A with Its Substitutes to Pelophylax nigromaculatus [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 281-287
Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils on Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) in a Mining Area of Guizhou Province  PDF download
Zheng Liping, Wang Guoqing, Lin Yusuo, Feng Yanhong, Wu Chunyu, Zhang Ya
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141217001
Abstract: Typical soils contaminated by multiple heavy metals were collected from a mining area in Guizhou province for 28d chronic toxicity assay. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) and metallothionein (MT) in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were determined to evaluate correlations between these indicators and soil heavy metal contents. Feasibility of using these indicators to assess ecological risk of heavy metal contaminated mining soils was investigated. Results showed that the activity of CAT and SOD in earthworms increased firstly, and was inhibited thereafter during the exposure duration. This might suggested that activity of CAT and SOD in earthworm was raised to remove free radicals caused by stress of heavy metal contamination so as to adapt to changes of the environment. The accumulation of metabolites in earthworms after alleviating of metal toxicity inhibited activity of antioxidant enzymes, which led to decrease in CAT and SOD activity. When exposed to sub-lethal heavy metal concentrations, content of 8-OHDG in earthworms showed significant decrease with exposure time. With increase in exposure concentrations, more serious damages on 8-OHDG were observed. Within the exposure duration of 28 days, MT in earthworm played a detoxification role under the stress of heavy metal contamination. MT contents increased after 7 days of exposure and decrease thereafter. This study performs a comprehensive evaluation on ecological risk of typical heavy metal contaminated soils of a mining area based on toxicity assay. Results of this study will be helpful to guide remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils as well as its reuse after treatment.
Citation: Zheng Liping, Wang Guoqing, Lin Yusuo, Feng Yanhong, Wu Chunyu, Zhang Ya Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils on Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) in a Mining Area of Guizhou Province [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 288-296
Effects of Dietary Copper Stress on Antioxidation, Lipid Peroxidation and Tissue Structure of Liver in Juvenile GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  PDF download
Wang Wenlong, Cui Xin, An Lilong, Xiao Mei, Gao Han, Li Chengcheng, Xing Xing, Li Yanwei, Xu Yingmei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150116001
Abstract: GIFT tilapia is an important economic species in aquaculture production in coastal regions in south of China, where is now facing an increasing challenge from Cu contamination with accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In order to evaluate the effects of dietary Cu stress on antioxidant activity and liver structure of juvenile GIFT tilapia, a total of 1080 fishes were fed with 6 different concentrations of Cu in diets (0、3、30、300、1 000、3 000 mg•kg-1) for 60 days. Antioxidation of serum and liver was measured, and the pathological changes of liver were observed. The results showed that the concentration of MDA in serum and liver increased significantly with exposure time and the increase of Cu accumulation in diets. Activity of SOD, CuZn-SOD and GSH-PX showed a down trend after a rise. Meanwhile, cloudy swelling and fatty degeneration in cells of liver was observed, especially pathological changes of liver aggravated when Cu concentration was increased to group Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ. It could be concluded that dietary Cu stress depressed the antioxidant activity and damaged the liver of tilapia. Therefore, we suggest that Cu concentration in diets for Juvenile tilapia should not be more than 42.36 mg•kg-1.
Citation: Wang Wenlong, Cui Xin, An Lilong, Xiao Mei, Gao Han, Li Chengcheng, Xing Xing, Li Yanwei, Xu Yingmei Effects of Dietary Copper Stress on Antioxidation, Lipid Peroxidation and Tissue Structure of Liver in Juvenile GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 297-304
Respiratory Inhibition Effect of Seven Phenolic Chemicals on Activated Sludge  PDF download
Gu Wen, Zhou Linjun, Liu Jining, Shi Lili, Chen Guosong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141117002
Abstract: Phenolic chemicals are ubiquitous organic contaminants in wastewater. The toxicity data of those compounds on activated sludge is of vital importance to steady operating of sewage treatment plant and performing of chemicals hazard assessment. In this study, respiratory inhibition effect of seven phenolic chemicals on activated sludge was tested by employing the activated sludge respiration inhibition test (TG 209). The experimental results indicated that there is no significant respiratory inhibition effect on activated sludge for 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol and 4-(1,1,3, 3-Tetramethy(butyl)-phenol. However, significant respiratory inhibition effect on activated sludge was observed for other five tested phenolic chemicals i.e. 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-phenyl-phenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-chlorophenol and p-cresol. And their 3 h-EC50 values were 49.7, 77.6, 102, 150.1 and 462 mg•L-1, respectively. The structure-activity relationship analysis results indicated that the functional groups such as -Cl, -NO2 are key factors for strong inhibiting of activated sludge respiration. In addition, the results present here also imply that the tested concentration of those toxic compounds should be lower than 1/10 EC50 in their biodegradability test.
Citation:Gu Wen, Zhou Linjun, Liu Jining, Shi Lili, Chen GuosongRespiratory Inhibition Effect of Seven Phenolic Chemicals on Activated Sludge[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Effect of Short-term Exposure of Phenols on Root Elongation of Wheat and Barley  PDF download
Wang Shan, Su Yuhong, Qiao Min
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140307001
Abstract: To evaluate the toxic effects of 12 phenols, the root elongation of wheat and barley exposing to different concentrations were investigated. Results showed that root elongation was significantly inhibited with the increasing of phenols. The IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration of root elongation) was used as an indicator. The IC50 values ranged from 12.92 to 231.76 mg•kg-1 for wheat and between 7.15 and 478.31 mg•kg-1 for barley. For pyrocatechol significant inhibition of root elongation for wheat was observed only under the highest concentration of 500 mg•kg-1. Wheat was relatively more sensitive to 3-cresol, bisphenol A, 2-naphthol and nonylphenol, while barley was more sensitive to other phenols. In general, the rank of phenols toxicity on wheat was similar to that of barley.
Citation: Wang Shan, Su Yuhong, Qiao Min Effect of Short-term Exposure of Phenols on Root Elongation of Wheat and Barley[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Effect of Wetland Plants Canna indica on the Growth of Scenedesmus obliquus under Phenanthrene Stress  PDF download
Jin Xiangqin, Yang Mengyao, Bian Hongfeng, Sheng Lianxi
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141111001
Abstract: In order to observe Scenedesmus obliquus growing changes under phenanthrene stress, we cultivated S. obliquus with the root zone water of Canna indica. The results indicated that the root zone water of Canna produced allelopathic effects that the low concentrations promote growth of S. obliquus or vice versa. Under two conditions of 15% and 30% plant root zone water ratios, promoting effect was enhanced with increasing phenanthrene concentrations, and the highest value of growth were found with the phenanthrene concentration of 1 mg•L-1. However, the effect of growth inhibition was enhanced with increasing phenanthrene concentrations when the root zone water of Canna was at 100%. Our study suggested that phenanthrene stress increases allelopathic effects of root zone water of Canna on algae. Additionally, logistic growth fitting showed that intrinsic rate of population growth is the highest at 30% and 1 mg•L-1 treatment, suggesting that ecological risk might be highest with the outbreak of growth in S. obliquus groups .
Citation: Jin Xiangqin, Yang Mengyao, Bian Hongfeng, Sheng LianxiEffect of Wetland Plants Canna indica on the Growth of Scenedesmus obliquus under Phenanthrene Stress[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
The Effects of BTEXs on the catalase Gene Expression and Catalase Activities in Respiratory Tree and Intestine of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus  PDF download
Gao Shibo, Wang Bai, Dong Ying, Gao Shan, Jiang Jingwei, Sun Hongjuan, Yin Xuwang, Zhou Zunchun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140905001
Abstract: The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of BTEXs on the activities of catalase (CAT) and relative expression levels of cat gene in respiratory tree and intestine of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Three different concentrations (1/5, 1/25, 1/125 of 96–LC50) of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, o–, m–, p–xylene were selected to treat the healthy sea cucumber individuals using semi-static water experimental method. The results showed that the expression levels of cat gene in respiratory tree and intestine were remarkably changed in different BTEXs treatment groups. The activities of CAT in respiratory tree were induced in benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o–xylene treatment groups, and the highest levels (12.0~19.8 fold) were found in ethyl benzene treatment group. The activities of CAT in intestine were inhibited in BTEXs treatment groups, and the activities in descending order were o–xylene, ethyl benzene, p–xylene, toluene, m–xylene and benzene treatment groups. This suggested that BTEXs have oxidative stress on the respiratory tree and intestine of A. japonicus, and might have oxidative damage on the two tissues. Correlation analysis showed that CAT activity was remarkably positive correlated with the relative expression level of cat gene in intestine, which was also remarkably positive correlated with that of respiratory tree. These results will provide the basic data for toxic assessment of BTEXs on the sea cucumber A. japonicus.
Citation: Gao Shibo, Wang Bai, Dong Ying, Gao Shan, Jiang Jingwei, Sun Hongjuan, Yin Xuwang, Zhou ZunchunThe Effects of BTEXs on the catalase Gene Expression and Catalase Activities in Respiratory Tree and Intestine of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
The Oxidative Stress of Copper on Liver of River Snail Cipangopaludina cahayensis in the presence of Two Kinds of Organic Acids  PDF download
Wang Weimu, Wang Qun, Liu Hui, Tan Jiankang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140816001
Abstract: The effects of EDTA or citric acid (CA) and copper in sediments on reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activites in liver of River Snail, Cipangopaludina cahayensis were investigated to get insight into the ecotoxicological effects of copper in sediments with various gradient of EDTA or CA on benthic invertebrates. The results indicated that there was an obvious increase of ROS generation in liver of Cipangopaludina cahayensis treated with organic acids and copper compared with that of the control group. The six–line composed of three groups with two hyperfine splitting peaks in each showed a typical hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) spectrum, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique, captured by α–phenyl–N–tert–butylnitron (PBN). At copper concentration of 100 mg•kg-1 and below, the content of EDTA and CA had no significant difference on MDA. EDTA inhibited the generation of MDA at higher concentration of copper. On the contrary, CA induced the generation of MDA at higher concentration of copper. EDTA could suppress the SOD and CAT activites in liver of Cipangopaludina cahayensis after copper exposure. In contrast, the addition of CA could avoid the severe changes of SOD and CAT activity at the highest copper exposure.
Citation: Wang Weimu, Wang Qun, Liu Hui, Tan Jiankang The Oxidative Stress of Copper on Liver of River Snail Cipangopaludina cahayensis in the presence of Two Kinds of Organic Acids[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Toxicities and Hazard Classification of Reclaimed Water after Disinfection of Different Approaches by Zebrafish Embryos Bioassay  PDF download
Yu Fenfang, Tang Tianle, Bai Juanjuan, Xiong Zhangdong, Tang Wenhao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141012001
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the embryos toxicity and hazard induced by the effluent from the sewage treatment plants of Hainan Province which disinfected by different approaches including chloramines, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, ozone,and ultraviolet(UV). Zebrafish was chosen as the model animal and was exposed to the disinfected water sample in the embryonic toxicity test. To evaluate the hazard, a hazard classification method was established based on the embryos toxicity and the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) model. The results indicated that: the effluent without disinfection didn’t exhibit developmental toxic effects on embryos, but all the disinfected water samples exhibited toxic effects on embryos including yolk sac abnormalities, heart rate decrease, pigmentation reduction, delay hatching and capuchin. Exposure in disinfected water samples increased the mortality rate of zebrafish embryos. The embryo toxicity showed as follows: chlorine dioxide
Thiram Affects Diodinase3 Gene Expression in Zebrafish Embryos  PDF download
Yu Yongli, Chen Xing, Li Huilei, Wei Suxiang, Yang Jingfeng, Zhang Xuefu, Dong Yanxin, Yu Huarong, Yang Wenjun, Dong Wu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140627001
Abstract: Thiram is a pesticide of the dithiocarbamate chemical family, and is extensively used in China. Its residual toxicity is a widespread problem and was voiced out by many members of the scientific community. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used as a whole animal model to understand thiram toxicity. Zebrafish embryos hatching rate was significantly decreased from 100% in control to 46% in 1 ×10-7 mol•L-1 Thiram and even 0% in 1 × 10-6 mol•L-1 thiram. At the same time, significant increase in Deiodinase 3, an enzyme crucial in embryonic development and metamorphosis, was observed at 6.71 and 14.84 folds more than control at the two different concentrations at respectively at 24 hpf. These results demonstrated that zebrafish embryo is a sensitive model to thiram toxicity and can become a useful model for pesticide environmental toxicity assessment.
Citation: Yu Yongli, Chen Xing, Li Huilei, Wei Suxiang, Yang Jingfeng, Zhang Xuefu, Dong Yanxin, Yu Huarong, Yang Wenjun, Dong Wu Thiram Affects Diodinase3 Gene Expression in Zebrafish Embryos[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis BtZ01 on Growth and Development in Embryonic and Post-embryonic Periods of Mice  PDF download
Chen Bo, Gu Mingjuan, Zhu Yao, Liu Yongliang, Pan Kangcheng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140919003
Abstract: This study was to investigate the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis BtZ01 on growth and development in embryonic and post-embryonic periods of mice. Forty eight pregnant Kunming mice were randomly assigned into four groups. The control group was fed with sterilized water and the treated groups were fed with sterile saline containing 106 CFU•mL-1, 108 CFU•mL-1, 5×109 CFU•mL-1 BtZ01, respectively. In the present study, the body weight and organ weight ratios were measured, and as well as bone malformations and microscopic pathology were examined. Results indicated that there were no significantly differences between the control and the treated groups for mice’s length and weight gain (p>0.05). The malformations ratios of the control and the treated groups were not different (P>0.05). However, the fontanels of high-dose group (5×109 CFU•mL-1 BtZ01) were wider and their kidneys were changed, compared with the control groups. Generally, our results showed that the Bacillus thuringiensis BtZ01 has no adverse or toxic effects on embryonic and post-embryonic mice in a dose of 108 CFU•mL-1.
Citation: Chen Bo, Gu Mingjuan, Zhu Yao, Liu Yongliang, Pan KangchengImpact of Bacillus thuringiensis BtZ01 on Growth and Development in Embryonic and Post-embryonic Periods of Mice[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Effects of Dimethoate on Life-cycle Traits of Caenorhabditis elegans  PDF download
Wang Chunhua, He mei, Li chaopin, Li chaopin, He mei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140927001
Abstract: A hanging-drop method with a semi-fluid culture medium was used to carry out life table experiments in order to test the toxic effects of dimethoate on life-cycle traits of Caenorhabditis elegans, after the nematodes were exposed to three groups of dimethoate (0.07, 0.7 and 7 mmol•L-1, which were 1/1 000 LC50, 1/100 LC50 and 1/10 LC50 respectively) for 4 h. The results showed that in 0.7and 7 mmol•L-1 groups, the total fertility rates (TFR) of nematodes were 260.60 and 203.80 respectively, both of which decreased significantly compared with control (299.23, P<0.05); the net reproductive rates (R0) were 240.29 and 147.67, which dropped significantly compared with control (298.67, P<0.05); the intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) were 1.342 d-1 and 1.233 d-1, which were much lower than control (1.387 d-1, P<0.05); while in 0.07 mmol•L-1 group, TFR was 293.84, R0 286.60,the differences of which were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the scope of the above dimethoate concentration, the values of TFR, R0 and rm all decreased evidently as the concentration of dimethoate increased. The study also found that the rm in 0.07 mmol•L-1 group was 1.405 d-1, which was evidently higher than control (P<0.05). From the present study, it was concluded that the fertility of C. elegans decreased when exposed to the dimethoate in a specific amount, while low doses of dimethoate had a hormesis effect on intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) of nematode population, and the three parameters of TFR, R0 and rm detected in this paper were sensitive to dimethoate exposure in low dosage.
Citation:Wang Chunhua, He mei, Li chaopin, Li chaopin, He mei Effects of Dimethoate on Life-cycle Traits of Caenorhabditis elegans [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Clone, Sequence Analysis and Distribution of Ras Pathway Genes in Rare Minnow  PDF download
Wang Miao, Zha Jinmiao, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141022002
Abstract: Ras gene is a kind of more conservative proto-oncogenes in the process of evolution, it is very important for cell proliferation and differentiation, and the construction of cytoskeleton. Partial cDNA sequences of k-ras, n-ras, pik3cd, raf1 and pin1, which are involved in Ras signal pathway, were cloned and sequenced from the liver of Gobiocypris rasus. Sequence analysis showed that the k-ras gene shared the highest sequence affinity with the amino acid sequence of Cyprinus carpio (99%), whereas the other four genes showed the highest sequence affinity with those of Danio rerio (99%, 87%, 96% and 97%, respectively). The phylogenetic trees were developed based on amino acid sequences of Gobiocypris rarus and other known species, which showed the closest genetic relationship with Gobiocypris rarus, Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio. Besides, differential gene expression of k-ras, n-ras, pik3cd, raf1 and pin1 has been demonstrated across a panel of tissues in the rare minnow. It has been shown that all the genes had differential expression in liver, gill, kidney, brain and gonad. The present study offered scientific information for discovering cancer processes and assessing ecological health risk of aquatic xenobiotics of Gobiocypris rarus at molecular level.
Citation:Wang Miao, Zha Jinmiao, Wang Zijian Clone, Sequence Analysis and Distribution of Ras Pathway Genes in Rare Minnow [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Research on Toxicity Test Method with Brachionus calyciflorus  PDF download
Xu Jiyang, Zhang Wenping, Li Shaonan, Lang Qianping
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140505002
Abstract: To investigate the possibility of taking the populations instead of the individuals as objects of indoor toxicity tests of rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus< was employed in this study to perform experiments to establish life-table and to determine population growth rates corresponding to different densities of inoculation. In addition to that rotifer toxicity tests were performed using three types of pesticides, i.e. chlorpyrifos, butachlor, triadimefon. The experiment for life-table establishment indicated that the average lifetime and generation cycle of the rotifer were (78.76 ± 33.08) h and (51.56 ± 20.55) h, respectively. The experiments on inoculation density indicated that with increase in density of inoculation, growth rate of the populations decreased. Due to the information from the inoculation experiment, the toxicity tests started in density of 35 ind•(100 mL)-1 and the tests lasted 144 h. Result of the toxicity tests showed that 96 h–EC50 and 120 h–EC50 were 0.6066 mg•L-1 and 0.7323 mg•L-1, respectively, for chlorpyrifos, they were 1.851 mg•L-1 and 3.058 mg•L-1, respectively, for butachlor, and the values were 12.84 mg•L-1 and 11.63 mg•L-1, respectively, triadimefon. Result of the study suggested affirmed the possibility of taking the populations instead of the individuals as objects of indoor toxicity tests of rotifers.
Citation: Xu Jiyang, Zhang Wenping, Li Shaonan, Lang Qianping [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Simulating the Transfer and Fate and Environmental Risk Assessment of PCB52 in Nanjing  PDF download
Liu Dan, Zhang Shenghu, Liu Jining, Yao Cheng, Shi Lili
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141117004
Abstract: A multimedia fugacity model was applied to simulate the concentrations distribution, transfer and fate of PCB52 in air, water, soil and sediment of Nanjing Area. Meanwhile, the transfer fluxes between different compartments were analyzed in order to infer the main transfer process. Moreover, the simulated concentrations in air, soil and sediment were compared to monitoring data for validation purpose. Input parameters of the model were tested and the key parameters were identified using sensitivity analysis method. The reliability of the model was verified by the agreement between calculated and measured concentrations. When the system reaches equilibrium, sediment compartments were the main reservoirs of PCB52 in Nanjing area because of the mass fraction of PCB52 was 96.12%. The air advection outflow and air degradation were the major elimination routes for PCB52 in Nanjing. The results of sensitivity analysis in this study also indicated that the temperature and air advection inflow had significant influence on concentrations of PCB52 in various media. The preliminary risk assessment suggested that the PCB52 in the study area might pose little harm to the environment, but the latent damage should not be disregarded.
Citation: Liu Dan, Zhang Shenghu, Liu Jining, Yao Cheng, Shi Lili Simulating the Transfer and Fate and Environmental Risk Assessment of PCB52 in Nanjing [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Butyltin Compounds in Surface Sediment from Fishing Ports of Chongming Island in the Yangzte Estuary  PDF download
Xiang Yuanjing, Zhang Feifei, Chen Weidong, Chen Ling, Huang Qinghui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141119002
Abstract: Surface sediments were collected from five fishing ports in Chongming Island and the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary. Organotin compounds in the sediment samples were investigated by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after ultrasonic extraction and ethyl derivatization. The results showed that organotin was not detected in the sediments of reference sites in the Yangtze Estuary while butyltin compounds were widely distributed in all the sediments from fishing ports, varying from 1.6 to 58.8 ng Sn•g-1 (dry weight, the same as below). Concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (DBT) ranged from not detectable level (ND) to 28.7 ng Sn•g-1, ND to 22.1 ng Sn•g-1, 1.6~8 ng Sn•g-1,respectively. Among them, contamination level of TBT in the sediment was highest in Baozheng port;TBT concentrations in the sediment from the entrance of Laoyao port and Xijia port were almost the same as that of Xinhe port (average value was 17.2 ng Sn•g-1). In the inner ports, TBT was not detected and only small amounts of MBT were residual. All of the TBT-contaminated sites were found in the neighborhood of large fishing boats dock, marinas or shipyards. TBT concentrations of these sites exceeded 5 ng Sn•g-1—the Interim Sediment Quality Guideline (ISQG) trigger value of Australian and New Zealand. Besides, the ratio between predicted exposure value (PECsed) and predicted no effect value (PNECsed) of all the sites were all above 1. Consequently, both ISQG and PECsed /PNECsed indicated high ecological risk of TBT in sediments from Chongming Island fishery ports. Overall, organotin concentrations and species showed large variation in the sediment from the Yangtze Estuary area, and organotin contamination in the sediments around docks or shipyard should be concerned in priority.
Citation: Xiang Yuanjing, Zhang Feifei, Chen Weidong, Chen Ling, Huang Qinghui Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Butyltin Compounds in Surface Sediment from Fishing Ports of Chongming Island in the Yangzte Estuary[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Butyltin Compounds in Surface Sediment from Fishing Ports of Chongming Island in the Yangzte Estuary  PDF download
Liu Jinhu, Song Junjie, Cao Liang, Huang Wei, Dou Shuozeng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140630002
Abstract: This study investigated the spatial and temporal distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in the surface sediments of Laizhou Bay, collected in May, August, October and December 2010, respectively. Results revealed that the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Pb in the sediments were all lower in May than in other sampling months and the concentrations of Hg in October were 4 times as high as other sampling months. The concentrations of Cu, As and Pb did not significantly differ among sampling months. The highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, As and Cd in the sediments generally occurred in the central and western areas of the bay, which was probably affected to a large extend by natural sources such rock weathering. In contrast, Hg and Pb concentrations were found in the highest levels in the eastern areas of the bay such as the Jiehe river estuary and its adjacent areas. Hg and Pb could originate mainly from the emissions of anthropogenic pollutants of the industrial enterprises along the coastal waters. Results of geoaccumulation index, Hakanson potential ecological risk index and effect range indicated that 13~29% of the sediments in the investigated areas were slightly polluted by Cd, Hg and Pb. The areas which exhibited high Hg and Cd concentrations were ranked middle-level ecological risk. Moreover, in 65~68% of the investigated areas, Hg and As concentrations in the sediments reached the level at which heavy metals could exhibit adverse ecological impacts on the sediment environments and benthic bio-communities. With respect to heavy metals, the overall quality of the surface sediments in Laizhou Bay was good except in some specific sites in which Hg, Pb, Cd or As showed potential pollution risk.
Citation: Liu Jinhu, Song Junjie, Cao Liang, Huang Wei, Dou Shuozeng Spatial and Temporal Distribution, Sources and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of Laizhou Bay[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Ecological Risk Assessment of Cadmium in Chinese Typical Offshore Marine Environment  PDF download
Zhang Lingsong, Wang Yeyao, Liu Fang, Jin Xiaowei, Meng Fansheng, Ma Guangwen, Chen Ping, Li Junlong, Ding Ye, Li Zhao, Liu Xihui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141021001
Abstract: Probabilistic assessments method was used to assess the ecological risk of cadmium in 8 Chinese typical offshore marine environment including Beibu Gulf, Bohai Bay, Hangzhou Bay, Liaodong Bay, Minjiang Estuary, Pearl Estuary, Huanghe Estuary, Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that there have low risk of cadmium in Beibu Bay, Bohai Bay, Hangzhou Bay, Yangtze Estuary, Minjiang Estuary, Pearl River Estuary, Huanghe Estuary. The highest potential affected fractions (PAF) of acute and chronic toxicity were lower than 5%, and overall potential for adverse effects decreased . The PAF of cadmium in Liaodong Bay is relative high, the highest PAF is 28.67% (with 95% confidence interval of 26.29%~30.06%), and the PAF corresponding to exceedance of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% are 18.95% (17.84%~20.23%), 12.51% (11.65%~13.61%), 8.26 (7.40~9.15), 5.45 (4.62~6.16), respectively. The overall trend of cadmium concentration in Liaodong bay is increasing from 2005-2010 and then declining from 2010-2013. It also indicated that the Wuli River and Daling River were main pollution source in the Liaodong Bay.
Citation: Zhang Lingsong, Wang Yeyao, Liu Fang, Jin Xiaowei, Meng Fansheng, Ma Guangwen, Chen Ping, Li Junlong, Ding Ye, Li Zhao, Liu Xihui Ecological Risk Assessment of Cadmium in Chinese Typical Offshore Marine Environment [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Study on the Character of Health Risk in the Water Environment of Hun River   PDF download
Wang Hui, Sun Lina, Liu Zhe, Luo Qing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141021004
Abstract: With rapid growth of economic development, more and more pollutants were pour into river and it had exerted negative effects on human health. The conventional water quality assessment could't reflect the risk degree to human health. So the health risk assessment was essential. Based on the water quality monitoring data about the eleven monitoring indexes in surface water during 2009—2010, this paper assessed the environmental health risk through drinking water with the model for USEPA water environmental health risk analysis in the mainstream of Hun river. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals and CN- were lower than National Grade Ⅲ (GB3838—2002), and the concentrations of NH4 -N and volatile hydroxybenzene exceeded the maximum permissible limits of National Grade Ⅲ. The health risk of NH4 -N was the greatest in non-carcinogens. But compare with the health risk of carcinogens, the health risk of non-carcinogens was negligible. The greatest health risk for individual person per year was caused by Cr (VI), and it were higher than the standard value recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The total health risk in Hun River was the smallest in wet season, and the biggest in normal water season. The health risk in Hun River decreased from the upstream to downstream , but the health risk exceed the standard value in every sampling sites. Cr(VI) was the main risk factors in Hun River. So an effective way to reduce and control the discharge of Cr(VI) must be carried out to decrease the environmental health risk, and the management of wastewater in agricultural non-point source and industry must been strengthen.
Citation: Wang Hui, Sun Lina, Liu Zhe, Luo Qing Study on the Character of Health Risk in the Water Environment of Hun River [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Analysis and Evaluation of Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Soil along Chao River in Miyun County of Beijing  PDF download
Yu Yang, Ma Junhua, Mo Li, Kong Yanhong, Shen Zhenyao, Li Yingxia
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141028001
Abstract: To analyze the possible non-point source pollution influence from upstream area of Miyun Reservior, 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCBs) concentrations were determined on soil samples along the lower reach of Chao River. The concentrations of ΣDL-PCBs ranged from 0.0039 ng•g-1 to 0.0365 ng•g-1 and PCB-118, 115, 77 were the major congeners of the DL-PCBs in this study area. The PCB-81, 114, 157 were all lower than the detection limits. The concentrations of theΣDL-PCBs in grasslands, forests, and orchards were higher than those in corn fields. This implied that DL-PCBs pollution in the study area might be mainly influenced by long-distance atmospheric transportation and deposition and river sedimentations. Local human activities imposed less impact on DL-PCBs. Compared with other study areas, the mean concentrations of 12 kinds of DL-PCBs in the study area were low. The toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) was at a moderate level. PCB-126 and PCB-169, which have higher Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF), should be given more attention since they might be harmful to humans and animals.
Citation: Yu Yang, Ma Junhua, Mo Li, Kong Yanhong, Shen Zhenyao, Li Yingxia Analysis and Evaluation of Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Soil along Chao River in Miyun County of Beijing [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
The Seasonal Characteristics and Potential Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metal Pollution in Terminal Tap Water from Guiyang Western Suburbs Water Plant  PDF download
Qin Haoli, Cheng Yarou
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140923001
Abstract: The seasonal characteristics of the 10 heavy metals were studied in terminal tap water from Guiyang Western Suburbs Water Plant, based on the data of water quality collected on March and July, 2014. The potential risk to human health was assessed by the model which is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results showed that the concentration of 10 heavy metals satisfies the national sanitary standard for drinking water. The concentration of heavy metal pollutants demonstrated different characteristics with various seasons. The average concentration of Hg, Zn, Se, Mo and Ba in dry season was higher than wet season, and Pb, Cu, Mn and Ni showed higher average concentration in wet season, no obvious concentration change was observed for As. The average carcinogenic risk for adults were obviously greater than for minors, but the non-carcinogenic risk was almost the same. The health risk for both adults and minors via dietary intake were higher than the way via dermal intake, and the carcinogenic risk was greater than the non-carcinogenic risk. The indexes of risk were 2.49×10-6~9.16×10-6 to 3.26×10-8~9.59×10-8, and 2.29×10-8~3.20×10-8 to 1.85×10-10~4.14×10-10, respectively. In conclusion, the carcinogenic risk and the non-carcinogenic risk of 10 heavy metals in terminal tap water, supplied by Guiyang Western Suburbs Water Plant, were lower than the maximum allowance levels, which would not cause health hazard to human beings in the supply area.
Citation:Qin Haoli, Cheng Yarou The Seasonal Characteristics and Potential Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metal Pollution in Terminal Tap Water from Guiyang Western Suburbs Water Plant[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Assessing Exposure Risk of Lead in Urban Soil and Dust to Children in the Valley-city  PDF download
Li Xiaoping, Liu Xianyu, Liu Jie, Xu Changlin, Yang Rui, Wang Jiwen, Wang Yifan, Wang Yao, Wang Lina, Zhou Qian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141011002
Abstract: To quantificationally assess the health risk of children exposure to the heavy metal lead from urban soil and dust in the Valley-city, a total of 243 analytical samples composited from 3-5 subsamples according to classical cone and quarter technique were collected from the 0-20 cm top soil and 1-1.5m high building balcony dust in Baoji, Xi’an, Weinan, Tongchuan industrial areas. The concentrations of heavy metal lead including of its chemical fractionations and health risks exposure to children were investigated by XRF, BCR and USEPA health risk assessment methods respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of lead in urban soil and dust in Baoji, Xi’an, Weinan, Tongchuan were (409.2±52.54) and (624.70±66.15) mg•kg-1, (357.47±41.37) and (592.60±36.78) mg•kg-1, (61.4±13.31) and (78.42±14.89) mg•kg-1, (46.71±12.11) and (64.7±13.76) mg•kg-1 respectively, which was much beyond the background value of lead in Shaanxi province. The corresponding pollution levels divided by background value decreased as the order of Baoji>Tongchuan>Xi’an>Weinan. The BCR analysis suggested that the mobility tendency of lead in urban soil and dust decreased as the following order: urban dust of Baoji(90.71%)>urban dust of Xi’an(84.74%)≥urban soil of Baoji(83.12%)>urban dust of Weinan(74.89%)≥urban soil of Xi’an(74.50%)>urban dust of Tongchuan(72.49%)>urban soil of Tongchuan(57.50%)>urban soil of Weinan(53.79%). The migration trend of lead in urban dust was much larger than corresponding urban soil. On the other hand, the hazard indexes (HI) of lead in urban soil and dust between Baoji and Tongchuan city were higher than 1, indicating that lead posed a higher non- carcinogenic risk to children in two cities. However, the carcinogenic risk of lead exposure to four urban children obtained in this study had a considerable level, and the risk degree decreased as Baoji>Tongchuan>Xi’an>Weinan. The non- carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk degrees of lead exposure to children show the similar trend with the oxidizable fractionation distributing in four corresponding urban soil and dust, which indicated that the oxidizable fractionations of lead might be the mail speciation and factor causing to children’s blood lead poisoning. Therefore, the anthropic activities including the industrial discharge and coal combustion were the main sources exposure to children in the Weihe Basin. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be concerned by the local government to address lead pollution in urban areas.
Citation: Li Xiaoping, Liu Xianyu, Liu Jie, Xu Changlin, Yang Rui, Wang Jiwen, Wang Yifan, Wang Yao, Wang Lina, Zhou Qian Assessing Exposure Risk of Lead in Urban Soil and Dust to Children in the Valley-city [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Component analysis and Environmental Risk Assessment of the Polyvinyl Alcohol Distillation Residues   PDF download
Lu Xiaowei, Feng Wenlong, Xiong Si, Li Xiujin, Zou Dexun, Lin Aijun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141117001
Abstract: Samples of polyvinyl alcohol distillation residues collected from a factory in the Eastern of China were analyzed for heavy metals and organic pollutants and the environmental risk of the residues was assessed. Results showed that polyvinyl alcohol distillation residues were mainly discharged by the refined section of ethyl acetate production. The acetic acid was the major organic component in the distillation residues at a concentration of 63.47% and the concentration of heavy metals Zn, Ni and Cr were found to be 404 537, 8 654 and 5 084 mg•kg-1, respectively. The environmental risk of organics in the residue was within an acceptable range, while the heavy metals in the residues were of high potential ecological risk. It was concluded that the main environmental risk factors of the distillation residues were acetic acid, Zn and Ni.
Citation: Lu Xiaowei, Feng Wenlong, Xiong Si, Li Xiujin, Zou Dexun, Lin Aijun Component analysis and Environmental Risk Assessment of the Polyvinyl Alcohol Distillation Residues [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Ecological Effects on Aquatic Plants Induced by Perfluorinated Compounds I—Occurrences and Bioaccumulation of Perfluorinated Compounds in Typical Urban River   PDF download
Jiang Zhaoze, Wang Tieyu, Zhang Xiaojun, Kong Xiaoxiao, Li Qifeng, Meng Jing, Zhu Zhaoyun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150116003
Abstract: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received extensive attentions and were reported to be widespread in environment in recent years. The existing studies mainly focused on environmental exposure, source identification, and ecological effects related to animal, however, few studies were designed to pay more attention to bioaccumulation of aquatic plants growth in urban river which polluted by domestic discharge. The present study selected the Qing River, which a typical urban river flowing from west to east of north part of Beijing city. All 12 target PFCs compounds were detected in water with the highest concentration up to 65.45 ng•L-1, and PFBS was the dominant compound(up to 45.63 ng•L-1). As for 6 species of aquatic plants, PFOS and PFOA were predominantly in Potamogeton pectinatus L., Hydrilla verticillata (Linn. f.) Royle, Ceratophyllum demersum L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., Scirpus validus Vahl and Acorus calamus L. Among three kinds of submerged plants, Ceratophyllum demersum L. had more bioaccumulation of PFOS. Among emergent aquatic plants, generally PFCs levels in root tissues were higher than those in stems and leaves; therein PFOA and PFOS concentrations in roots were higher than those of stems and leaves as well, while PFBA with exact contrary. In general, three kinds of emergent aquatic plants couldn’t be served as hyper-accumulation plant, but the root tissue has significant absorption effect of PFOS. Ceratophyllum demersum L. has significant effect of bioaccumulation of PFOS, and it is also the dominant species widely spread in natural river in north China, thus it could been concerned as a biological indicator and explain its ecological remediation function in the further studies.
Citation: Jiang Zhaoze, Wang Tieyu, Zhang Xiaojun, Kong Xiaoxiao, Li Qifeng, Meng Jing, Zhu ZhaoyunEcological Effects on Aquatic Plants Induced by Perfluorinated Compounds I—Occurrences and Bioaccumulation of Perfluorinated Compounds in Typical Urban River [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Ecological Effects on Aquatic Plants Induced by Perfluorinated Compounds II—Bioaccumulation and Physiological Response of Ceratophyllum demersum in PFOS Polluted Water   PDF download
Kong Xiaoxiao, Wang Tieyu, Zhang Xiaojun, Jiang Zhaoze, ZhouYunqiao, Li Qifeng, Meng Jing, Zhu Zhaoyun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150116002
Abstract: In order to explore the aquatic ecological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), Ceratophyllum demersum was selected as a target endpoint to analyze its bioavailability and physiological responses. Hydroponic experiments at seven grades of PFOS concentrations (0, 5, 100, 1 000, 10 000, 50 000, 100 000 μg•L-1), were designed to detect the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide enzyme (POD), catalase (CAT), as well as PFOS bioaccumulation. Ceratophyllum demersum showed significant higher bioaccumulation of PFOS with maximum of 3 180 mg•kg-1 dw and the bioaccumulation factor up to 40.7. The activitiy of SOD did not show significant changes. CAT activity showed two different trends: lower concentrations of PFOS promoted CAT activities, while higher concentrations inhibited CAT activities. With increasing concentrations of PFOS, POD did not exhibit significant changes at low concentration treatments (0, 5, 100, 1 000 μg•L-1), while POD activity showed increasing then decreasing trend at higher concentration treatments (10 000, 50 000, 100 000 μg•L-1). With increasing concentrations of PFOS, the reactions of pigment contents were very sensitive. Pigment contents increased in the treatments of low concentrations, while pigment contents increased and then decreased in the treatments of high concentration. Pigment content of Ceratophyllum demersum could be used as a sensitive indicator to assess environmental contamination induced by PFOS. In general, Ceratophyllum demersum showed higher capacity of PFOS bioavailability and expressed sensitive responses to PFOS pollution, thus, Ceratophyllum demersum could be used for bioremediation and bio-indicator for PFOS contaminated waterbodies.
Citation: Kong Xiaoxiao, Wang Tieyu, Zhang Xiaojun, Jiang Zhaoze, ZhouYunqiao, Li Qifeng, Meng Jing, Zhu ZhaoyunEcological Effects on Aquatic Plants Induced by Perfluorinated Compounds II—Bioaccumulation and Physiological Response of Ceratophyllum demersum in PFOS Polluted Water [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
Analysis of the Dietary Exposure Bioaccumulation and Depuration of MX-Spiked Feed in Fish  PDF download
Wang Lvping, Zhao Huaqing, Zhou Zhongliang, Yin Haowen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140804001
Abstract: Musk xylene (MX) is a synthetic musk fragrance ingredient with strong odor characteristics used as fixative principally in cosmetics and soaps. Because of its continuous input to environment, the concentrations of MX was increasing in water, soil and air, and concentrated in animals and human tissues. Its accumulative effect was equivalent to that of persistent organic pollutants such as organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs).It was necessary to study the bioaccumulation of MX in fishes. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were fed with MX-containing chow (0, 50 and 100 mg MX/kg fish feed) for 14 days followed by 28 days of clean food. The concentrations of MX in Zebrafish and Rare Minnow were measured by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and then the depuration ability of fish to MX was evaluated. The more MX content in diets, the higher MX concentration was found in fishes, e.g., the MX in fishes of 100 mg•kg-1 was two or three times as high as that of 50 mg•kg-1. A positive linear relationship was observed between the MX concentration in fishes and body weight of fishes, however, the body fat content was not related to the MX concentration in fishes. After depuration for 28 days, the levels of MX in fishes were close to zero, implying that Zebrafish and Rare Minnow have a strong ability to depurate MX.
Citation: Wang Lvping, Zhao Huaqing, Zhou Zhongliang, Yin Haowen Analysis of the Dietary Exposure Bioaccumulation and Depuration of MX-Spiked Feed in Fish[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(2): 305-311
 
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