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Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, February 2014, Volume 9, Number 1 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Methodologies for Deriving Aquatic Life  PDF download
Jin Xiaowei, Wang Yeyao, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130222001
Abstract: Aquatic life criteria (ALC) should be based on scientific and existing data and models in order to ensure the most effective aquatic life methodology. This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues of data screening and model calculating regarding the establishment of ALC, including data quantity and data quality, native species vs. non-native species, laboratory test vs. field test, traditional vs. non-traditional endpoints and data reduction, as well as ALC estimated models of assessment factors (AFs), species sensitivity distribution (SSDs), interspecies correlation estimates (ICEs). A proposed approach focused on data screening and model calculating for developing ALC in China were also discussed, based on modification of existing methodologies and specified taxonomic diversity in China.
Citation: Jin Xiaowei, Wang Yeyao, Wang Zijian Methodologies for Deriving Aquatic Life [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 1-13
MicroRNA: Potential Regulators in Atherosclerosis Induced by POPs  PDF download
Huang Fengchen, Wang Jing, Du Yuguo
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130504001
Abstract: The global incidence of atherosclerosis has increased at an alarming rate, being a serious challenge to public health in 21th century. Because of the properties of bio-accumulation and persistence, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could do harm to human health through different kinds of environmental media. Studies have shown POPs are risk factors of atherosclerosis, because they could exacerbate the development of by altering gene expression patterns. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of highly conserved non-coding small RNAs during the process of biological evolution, and they regulate the expression of genes posttranscriptionally. Differential expression of miRNAs is involved in the physiological and pathological processes of many kinds of diseases. Evidence has shown that POPs can cause miRNAs express in disorder, resulting in the differential gene expression. Mounting evidence has suggested that miRNAs play very important roles in atherosclerosis. Consequently, POPs could be able to induce through the potential regulation of miRNAs.
Citation: Huang Fengchen, Wang Jing, Du Yuguo MicroRNA: Potential Regulators in Atherosclerosis Induced by POPs [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 9(1): 14-23
Ecological Risk of Interstitial Water Heavy Metals and Toxicity Characterization of Surface Sediments in Branches of Liaohe River   PDF download
Bu Jihong, Xu Yiping, Zha Jinmiao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130117001
Abstract: Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, As, and Cd in the interstitial waters of 26 surface sediments in Liaohe River were measured by ICP-MS. The ecological risks were assessed based on the Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Units (IWCTU) and Nemeraw Index (NI), respectively. Sediment toxicities of the samples were assayed using midge larva (Chironomus riparius) simutaneously. The results showed that averaged concentrations of the heavy metals in the interstitial water of sedimental samples were 3.92 μg?L-1, 5.73 μg?L-1, 7.21 μg?L-1, 4.33 μg?L-1, 4.48 μg?L-1, 5.89 μg?L-1, and 0.29 μg?L-1 for Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, As, and Cd, respectively. And samples taken from Chai River, Yangximu River, Liangzi River, Fan River, Fujiawobao River, Jieguanting River showed potential ecological risks based on both IWCTU and NI values. By toxicity bioassay, samples from Chai River, Changgouzi River, Fujiawobao River, Liu River, Yitong River and Chaogou River exhibited stronger toxicities. Through integration, we suggested that the in vivo toxicities of the surface sediments from Liaohe River should be contributed by mixture of contaminants, rather than metals themselves.
Citation: Bu Jihong, Xu Yiping, Zha Jinmiao Ecological Risk of Interstitial Water Heavy Metals and Toxicity Characterization of Surface Sediments in Branches of Liaohe River[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 24-34
Research Articles
Influence of Iron Plaque on Pb Uptake and Translocation by Rice (Oryza sativa L.) (PFOS)  PDF download
Hu Ying, Huang Yizong, Huang Yanchao, Liu Yunxia
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130107001
Abstract: Influence of iron plaque on root surface at different growth stages on Pb uptake and translocation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated in pot experiment. The results showed that the amount of iron plaque (DCB-extractable Fe) and Pb concentration in iron plaque decreased with the increase of growth stages. There was a significant positive correlation between Fe and Pb concentration in iron plaque (r=0.798, p<0.01). Pb concentrations in shoot and root varied with different rice cultivars and growth stages. Pb concentration in grain of NK57 was significant higher than that of YD6, and about 1.9 times of YD6. As for Pb bio-accumulation factor and distribution ratio, Pb mainly accumulated in iron plaque and root of rice, and less in shoot and grain. There was no significant difference between two rice cultivars for Pb translocation from iron plaque, root and shoot to grain. There was a significant positive correlation between amount of iron plaque and Pb concentration in root at tillering stage and booting stage (p<0.05), but no significant correlation between amount of iron plaque and Pb concentration in root, shoot or grain at mature stage, indicating that the formation of iron plaque on root surface partly affected Pb accumulation in root at tillering stage and booting stage, but there was no significant effect on pb accumulation in root, shoot and grain at mature stage.
Citation: Hu Ying, Huang Yizong, Huang Yanchao, Liu Yunxia Influence of Iron Plaque on Pb Uptake and Translocation by Rice (Oryza sativa L.) (PFOS)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 35-41 
Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Waters of 36 Major Cities in China   PDF download
Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Waters of 36 Major Cities in China
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130201002
Abstract: Two kinds of probability risk assessment methods (Monte Carlo Analysis & triangular fuzzy) and a non-probability risk assessment method (incremental lifetime cancer risk, ILCR)were used to assess the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of finished water. The concentrations of total PAHs in finished water of 98 waterworks in 36 major cities of china were in the range of 17.5~408.3 ng?L-1, and the total concentration of carcinogenicity PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) ranged from nd to 94.7 ng?L-1. The concentrations of Benzo[a]pyrene in all waterworks were below 10 ng?L-1. In the assessment approach, the finished water was considered as potable water. The concentrations of PAHs were expressed as the equivalent concentration of benzo[a]pyrene by toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The results suggested that incremental lifetime cancer risk based on MCA was below 5.45×10-6 and the ILCR based on tri-angular fuzzy number was 7.56×10-6 at 95% interval, respectively. The maximum of ILCR derived from non-probability method was 7.12×10-6. Therefore, the ILCR of PAHs from both probability and non-probability risk assessment approaches could reach the same conclusion that ILCR for Chinese people were in an acceptable level. In general, different assessment methods may contain different information, and PRA method was more conservative than the point estimating method.
Citation:Song Hanwen, Zhang Bo, Wang Donghong, Wang Hailiang, Wang Zijian Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Waters of 36 Major Cities in China[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 42-48
The Toxicities and Potential Ecological Effects of Copper and Cadmium to Natural Fish Larvae and Juveniles from the Pearl River)  PDF download
Zeng Yanyi, Lai Zini, Yang Wanling, Gao Yuan, Li Yuefei, Pang Shixun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130111002
Abstract: Acute toxicities of copper and cadmium to natural fish larvae and juveniles from the Pearl River were studied by static test. The results show that the 48 h LC50 of Cu to larvae of Spualiobarbus curriculus and Xenocypris sp. and the 96 h LC50 of Cu to juvenile Megalobrama terminalis are 0.066, 0.055 and 0.10 mg?L-1, respectively, and the corresponding safety concentration thresholds are 0.006, 0.010 and 0.010 mg?L-1, respectively. The 48 h LC50 of Cd to larvae of S. curriculus and Xenocypris sp. and the 96 h LC50 of Cd to juvenile M. terminalis are 1.29, 0.83, 3.20 mg?L-1, respectively, and the corresponding safety concentration thresholds are 0.163, 0.077 and 0.320 mg?L-1, respectively. Accordingly, concentration thresholds of Cu are equal to or lower than the limit value for Cu of the Water Quality Standard for Fisheries and the Class Ⅱ level of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water for Cu, and the safety concentration of Cd is higher than the limit value for Cd of the above relative standards. This study suggests that Cu contamination in the Pearl River may affect the residential fish population.
Citation: Zeng Yanyi, Lai Zini, Yang Wanling, Gao Yuan, Li Yuefei, Pang Shixun The Toxicities and Potential Ecological Effects of Copper and Cadmium to Natural Fish Larvae and Juveniles from the Pearl River)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 49-55
Subchronic Toxicity Effect of the Wastewater and Effluent from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants on Early Life Stage Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)   PDF download
Yu Caihong, Zhou Ke, Liu Yun, Liu Chang, Luo Jing, Yu Guangfei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130203002
Abstract: The comprehensive toxicity effect of the wastewater and effluent from three sewage treatment plants was evaluated making use of the embryo and fry of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Three sewage treatment plants included two plants dealing with the sewage from domestic sewage (No. 1 and 2), while the rest sewage mainly dealt with the dyeing wastewater in Guangzhou. The results of 96-h acute toxicity test showed that six water samples had no acute toxicity effect to juvenile fish. The results of 14-d embryonic exposure test showed that the wastewater of three sewage treatment plants and the effluent of No.1 and 3 plants caused death of embryos, and the embryo incubation rates were all less than 70% and had significant difference with control groups(p<0.05). Fry's deformity rate of all wastewater and effluent of No.1 and 2 plants also had significant difference with control groups (p<0.05), including fry's deformity rate of the wastewater of No. 3 reaches as high as (33.73±8.94)%. But there was no obvious difference in embryo incubation time of six water samples with control groups (p>0.05), all about 9 d. The results of fish fry's 7-d exposure test showed that fish fry's mortality of the wastewater of No. 1, 2, 3 plants respectively were (30.16±2.75)%, (24.07±1.60)%, (37.90±4.77)%, and had significant difference with control groups (p<0.05). The lethal effect of the effluent to fish fry were significantly lower than the wastewater, however the lethal effect of the effluent to fry still had obvious difference compared with control groups (p<0.05). Citation: Yu Caihong, Zhou Ke, Liu Yun, Liu Chang, Luo Jing, Yu Guangfei Subchronic Toxicity Effect of the Wastewater and Effluent from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants on Early Life Stage Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 56-62
Response of Enzyme Activity and Microbial Biomass Carbon Content to Low Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Soil Properties  PDF download
Xian Yu, Wang Meie, Chen Weiping
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130206003
Abstract: Soil enzymes and microbial biomass carbon are important microbial indexes of soil health. Soil heavy metal pollution would affect the activities of soil enzymes and microbial biomass carbon content. The impacts however change with soil properties. In this research, field monitoring and laboratory simulation were carried out to study the impact of soil heavy metals contaminations on urease activity and the ratio of (microbial biomass carbon) / (soil organic carbon) (MBC / SOC). In field monitoring experiments, 233 points of Beijing urban soils inside the 5th ring road were sampled. Soil inside the 5th ring road of Beijing was polluted by low concentration of heavy metal (Cd 0.003~0.98 μg?g-1,Cu 13.4~207.9 μg?g-1,Zn 29.4~322 μg?g-1,Pb 4.02~174 μg?g-1). Relationship between urease activity and MBC / SOC and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb of those soils were analyzed. Under the range of soil heavy metal concentrations in Beijing, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb would have a promotion on the urease activity and reduce the MBC / SOC value. There was a significant positive correlation between urease activity, MBC, SOC and heavy metal concentrations, while there was a negative correlation between MBC / SOC and heavy metal concentrations. Soil heavy metal pollution could only explain 5%~10% of the total variance between urease activity or MBC / SOC and heavy metal concentrations. Laboratory simulation experiment revealed that soil enzymes activities were affected by the interaction of heavy metals and soil properties. Correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter content and pH were the major soil factors impacting urease activity. A greater R2 was got, when introducing soil organic matter content and pH. Soil heavy metal concentrations and the two soil properties could explain 14%~17% of the total variance.
Citation: Xian Yu, Wang Meie, Chen Weiping Response of Enzyme Activity and Microbial Biomass Carbon Content to Low Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Soil Properties [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 63-70
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relashionship between Acute Toxicity of Organophosphates and Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. -Q67  PDF download
Jiang Dan, Zhou Jianguo, Li Na, Rao Kaifeng, Li Xiao, Hu Yi
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130129001
Abstract: Soil enzymes and microbial biomass carbon are important microbial indexes of soil health. Soil heavy metal pollution would affect the activities of soil enzymes and microbial biomass carbon content. The impacts however change with soil properties. In this research, field monitoring and laboratory simulation were carried out to study the impact of soil heavy metals contaminations on urease activity and the ratio of (microbial biomass carbon) / (soil organic carbon) (MBC / SOC). In field monitoring experiments, 233 points of Beijing urban soils inside the 5th ring road were sampled. Soil inside the 5th ring road of Beijing was polluted by low concentration of heavy metal (Cd 0.003~0.98 μg?g-1,Cu 13.4~207.9 μg?g-1,Zn 29.4~322 μg?g-1,Pb 4.02~174 μg?g-1). Relationship between urease activity and MBC / SOC and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb of those soils were analyzed. Under the range of soil heavy metal concentrations in Beijing, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb would have a promotion on the urease activity and reduce the MBC / SOC value. There was a significant positive correlation between urease activity, MBC, SOC and heavy metal concentrations, while there was a negative correlation between MBC/SOC and heavy metal concentrations. Soil heavy metal pollution could only explain 5%~10% of the total variance between urease activity or MBC / SOC and heavy metal concentrations. Laboratory simulation experiment revealed that soil enzymes activities were affected by the interaction of heavy metals and soil properties. Correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter content and pH were the major soil factors impacting urease activity. A greater R2 was got, when introducing soil organic matter content and pH. Soil heavy metal concentrations and the two soil properties could explain 14%~17% of the total variance.
Citation: Jiang Dan, Zhou Jianguo, Li Na, Rao Kaifeng, Li Xiao, Hu Yi Quantitative Structure-Activity Relashionship between Acute Toxicity of Organophosphates and Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. -Q67 [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 71-80
Alterations in the mRNAs of Enzymes Responsible for Sex Steroidogenesis in the Testis of Zebrafish Exposed to Bisphenol-ADifferent Trophic Levels PDF download
Yun Dan, Liu Xiaoli, Cheng Lehua, Zhong Lianggang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130308001
Abstract: In order to elucidate the effect of different concentrations of an environmental estrogen on testicular development in fish, male adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 μg?L-1 bisphenol A (BPA) for 21 days. Then, another group of male zebrafish were exposed to 2 000 μg?L-1 BPA for the time-course gene expression analysis. The mRNAs of CYP450 enzymes responsible for sex steroid synthesis (CYP17, CYP11B, CYP19A), estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR). Histological alterations in the testis were subsequently investigated. Results showed that, BPA exposure upregulated testicular CYP19A , ERα and ERβ mRNAs. At 2 000 μg?L-1 BPA, the expression of all three genes was significantly upregulated. With the prolongation of BPA exposure, the effect on gene expression became more pronounced. BPA at 1 000 μg?L-1 significantly decreased the expression of CYP17 gene, while CYP11B mRNA was decreased in the fish treated with 2 000 μg?L-1 BPA for 12 days, and upregulated thereafter. But BPA had no effect on the AR mRNA. Meanwhile, 500 μg?L-1BPA markedly increased the expression of FSHR gene, and a significant increase in FSHR mRNA expression was observed as exposure time extended. Histologically, in the fish treated with 2 000 μg?L-1 BPA, sperms were found to be densely congregated in seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were reduced. Testis degradation was observed in the fish exposed to 4 000 μg?L-1 BPA. These results indicated that BPA can induce both the synthesis of endogenous estrogen and the expression of ER gene to enhance its estrogenic effects. Also, BPA can inhibit the synthesis of androgen to some extent by suppressing CYP17 gene expression, ultimately leading to the impairment of testicular structure and impediment of testicular development. Based on the results, it is postulated that the downregulation of androgenic hormone may have activated the negative feedback mechanism for the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis.
Citation: Yun Dan, Liu Xiaoli, Cheng Lehua, Zhong Lianggang Alterations in the mRNAs of Enzymes Responsible for Sex Steroidogenesis in the Testis of Zebrafish Exposed to Bisphenol-A[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 81-89
The Optimaization of Xenopus laevis Oocyte Germinal Vesicle Breakdown (GVBD) Assay and Screening of Disrupting Chemicals  PDF download
Cao Shan, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130316002
Abstract: Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) of Xenopus laevis oocytes is a good model for studying the process and mechanism of oocyte maturation. Because the occurrence of GVBD is regulated by hormones, progesterone-induced Xenopus GVBD assay has been used for screening endocrine disruptors. In the present study, the GVBD assay was optimized by pre-injecting human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) to improve the sensitivity of Xenopus oocytes to progesterone and reduce the difference in the sensitivity among individuals, and by shortening the experiment time. Methoxychlor, as a positive reference, inhibited progesterone-induced GVBD in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that the optimized assay was reliable. Mifepristone, as a progesterone receptor antagonist, had no inhibitory effect on progesterone-induced GVBD, suggesting that progesterone-induced GVBD could not be mediated completely by progesterone receptor. In addition, prochloraz and letrozole had no influence on Xenopus GVBD, showing no endocrine-disrupting activity in the process of Xenopus GVBD.
Citation:X Cao Shan, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen The Optimaization of Xenopus laevis Oocyte Germinal Vesicle Breakdown (GVBD) Assay and Screening of Disrupting Chemicals [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 90-96
The Optimaization of Xenopus laevis Oocyte Germinal Vesicle Breakdown (GVBD) Assay and Screening of Disrupting Chemicals  PDF download
Cao Shan, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130316002
Abstract: Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) of Xenopus laevis oocytes is a good model for studying the process and mechanism of oocyte maturation. Because the occurrence of GVBD is regulated by hormones, progesterone-induced Xenopus GVBD assay has been used for screening endocrine disruptors. In the present study, the GVBD assay was optimized by pre-injecting human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) to improve the sensitivity of Xenopus oocytes to progesterone and reduce the difference in the sensitivity among individuals, and by shortening the experiment time. Methoxychlor, as a positive reference, inhibited progesterone-induced GVBD in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that the optimized assay was reliable. Mifepristone, as a progesterone receptor antagonist, had no inhibitory effect on progesterone-induced GVBD, suggesting that progesterone-induced GVBD could not be mediated completely by progesterone receptor. In addition, prochloraz and letrozole had no influence on Xenopus GVBD, showing no endocrine-disrupting activity in the process of Xenopus GVBD.
Citation: Cao Shan, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen The Optimaization of Xenopus laevis Oocyte Germinal Vesicle Breakdown (GVBD) Assay and Screening of Disrupting Chemicals[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 90-96
The Neurotoxicity and The Oxidative Damage Induced by Butyl Benzyl Phthalate   PDF download
Min Anna, Liu Fengming, Yan Biao, Chen Mingqing,, Yang Xu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130403003
Abstract: To study the toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) on nerve cells. Mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of BBP. Then the toxicity of BBP on N2a cells were evaluated by MTT, Hoechst 33258 test. Furthermore the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were measured for studying on the effects of oxidative damage induced by BBP. It was showed that the (OD) value of MTT assay decreased with the increasing of BBP concentrations and was significantly difference from the control at dose of 10 g?L-1. It was found that the nucleus irregular degree increased and appeared apoptotic bodies at high dose of BBP by Hoechst 33258 staining. Along with the increasing of BBP concentrations, the enhancement of ROS level and MDA content at N2a cells were observed. There was significantly difference at dose of 0.16 g?L-1 and 10 g?L-1 respectively (p<0.05). And GSH content decreased as exposure of BBP and was significantly difference from the control at dose of 0.32 g?L-1. These results suggested that high concentration of BBP could trigger off apoptosis and induce oxidative damage to N2a cells.
Citation: Min Anna, Liu Fengming, Yan Biao, Chen Mingqing,, Yang Xu The Neurotoxicity and The Oxidative Damage Induced by Butyl Benzyl Phthalate [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 97-102
Effect of Fluoranthene on Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds Germination, Gastropoda  PDF download
Li Qiushuang, Shi Yajiuan, Wang Tieyu, Ni Kun, Xu Li, Liu Shijie, Wang Lin, Lu Yonglong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130403002
Abstract: To study the toxic effects of fluoranthene (FLT) on soybean (Glycine max) at its early growth stage, germination rate, germination vigor, germination index, germination vitality and seedling length of soybean were investigated. The results showed that germination rate did not change significantly when concentrations of FLT were lower than 15 mg?L-1, whereas it was inhibited significantly when FLT was at high concentrations ( ≥ 15 mg?L-1). Germination vigor, germination index and germination vitality, which decreased significantly when the concentration of FLT was higher than 5 mg L-1, were more sensitive to FLT stress than germination rate. The inhibition effect of FLT on seedling length was enhanced as the concentration and treating time increased.
Citation: Li Qiushuang, Shi Yajiuan, Wang Tieyu, Ni Kun, Xu Li, Liu Shijie, Wang Lin, Lu Yonglong Effect of Fluoranthene on Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds Germination [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 103-106
Effect of Di-n-butyl Phthalate on Cell Micronucleus from and the Mechanism of Toxicity in Vicia faba Radicle  PDF download
Lai Jinlong, Tao Zongya, Wu Guo, Fu Qian, Zhang Hong, Luo Xuegang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130321003
Abstract: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was widely used in the agricultural plastic film, which was mainly served as plasticizer. DBP, which did not been aggregated with polymer carbon chain during plastics processed, could have gradually leached out into the environment and shown the accumulation effects obviously as the degraded plastic films. It was important to explore the effects of DBP on crop growth for further evaluating the environmental safety of the agricultural plastic film and their residues. In this paper, the germinated broad bean were treated with the solution in which the concentration of DBP were set as 9 mmol?L-1, 18 mmol?L-1, 27 mmol?L-1 and 36 mmol?L-1 respectively for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The chromosome structures and micronucleus were observed and antioxidase activities were analyzed in the radicle. The results showed that the growth rates of the radicle were decreased when exposed to DBP. The percentage of cells at the prophase were increased as the time of exposed to DBP prolonged because the mitosis cell were mainly blocked at the prophase. The micronucleus rates were significantly increased and various types of chromosome aberration were observed. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher about 5.41%~29.68% than that of CK, however, peroxidase (POD) activities were reduced as the DBP concentration increased, catalase (CAT) activities were significantly lower than that of CK about 14.00%~43.08%. These results indicated that DBP could induce the damage of spindles and genotoxic effects on the radicle of broad bean.
Citation: Lai Jinlong, Tao Zongya, Wu Guo, Fu Qian, Zhang Hong, Luo Xuegang Effect of Di-n-butyl Phthalate on Cell Micronucleus from and the Mechanism of Toxicity in Vicia faba Radicle[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 107-113
Sorption of Androstenedione on Typical Soils of China  PDF download
Zhang Fengsong, Hu Haiping, Huang Zechun, Wang Daiyi, Wang Qi, Yue Bo, Liu Feng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130509002
Abstract: Batch equilibrium experiment was conducted to study the sorption characteristics of androstenedione to three typical soils of China (red soil, alluvial soil and black soil) and the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in cattle manure on androstenedione sorption. The results indicated that the absorption of androstenedione was in accordance of the Elovch reaction kinetics in the entire stage (R2>0.89). Freundlich isotherm turned out to be statistically described the sorption of androstenedione to the soils (R2>0.83). Androstenedione adsorption nonlinearity was observed for the soils, the most isotherm deviation from linearity occurred in the alluvial soil (n=0.37). The sorption coefficient (kf) ranged from 6.0 to 20.2 for the three soils, which showed a significant positive relation to the organic carbon content of each soil (p<0.05). Coexisted cattle manure DOM enhanced the androstenedione sorption at a lower concentration, while the opposite effect occurred when DOM concentration increased to high level. These results suggested that androstenedione was mostly adsorbed by the organic matter of soils, and coexisted cattle manure DOM could contribute to the transport of androstenedione to underground and surface water.
Citation: Zhang Fengsong, Hu Haiping, Huang Zechun, Wang Daiyi, Wang Qi, Yue Bo, Liu Feng Sorption of Androstenedione on Typical Soils of China [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 114-120
Effect of PM2.5 and Training on Glucose Metabolism Enzymes Activities   PDF download
Li Feng, Shi Hui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130421001
Abstract: The mechanism in the enzyme activities of hexokinase(HK), pyruvatekinase(PK) and isocitratedehydrogenase(IDH) of rats was studied after rats taking the exercise and being exposed by PM2.5. The 30 male Wistar SPF (Specific Pathogen Free, SPF) rats were randomly selected and divided into blank control group(QC), exercise control group(EC), low dose of PM2.5 exercise group(LPE), middle dose of PM2.5 exercise group(MPE), high dose of PM2.5 exercise group(HPE). PM2.5 was administered to rats by intratracheal instillation at the doses of 7.5 mg?(kg?bw)-1, 15 mg?(kg?bw)-1 and 30 mg?(kg?bw)-1 respectively, then all rats were trained by treadmill running with increasing load. The activity of HK, PK, IDH of serm and liver were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The result of the experiment shows that the activity of HK and PK in EC were declined, however, the IDH was rised compared with the QC. Compared with the EC group, the activity of HK, PK, IDH in LPE, MPE, HPE were decreased with the increasing of PM2.5 concentration which is a negative relationship (p<0.05 or p<0.001).
Citation: Li Feng, Shi Hui Effect of PM2.5 and Training on Glucose Metabolism Enzymes Activities [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 121-126
Combined Acute Toxicity of PM2.5 Exposure on Rat Behavior and Organs   PDF download
Li Feng, Shi Hui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130822001
Abstract: The 32 male Wistar SPF(Specific Pathogen Free, SPF) rats were randomly selected and divided into blank control group (QC), exercise control group (EC), low dose of PM2.5 exercise group (LPE), middle dose of PM2.5 exercise group(MPE), high dose of PM2.5 exercise group (HPE). PM2.5 was administered to rats by intratracheal instillation at the doses of 7.5 mg?(kg?bw)-1, 15 mg?(kg?bw)-1 and 30 mg?(kg?bw)-1 respectively, then all rats were trained by treadmill running with increasing load. Stroke index score was used to evaluate the rats’ behavior and the GSH-Px, ROS, NF-κΒ and MCP-1 were tested. The stroke index were statistically significant (p<0.05 or p<0.01) in three group compared with the control group; the activity of GSH-Px decreased after PM2.5 exposed, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The index of ROS, NF-κΒ and MCP-1 was statistically increased (p<0.05 or p<0.01), which showed dose-related. Acute exposure by PM2.5 can be adversely affected rats' behavior, resulting in some changes of the anti-oxidant and immune. Accordingly, the body's sports ability were affected and some physiological damage occurred.
Citation: Li Feng, Shi Hui Combined Acute Toxicity of PM2.5 Exposure on Rat Behavior and Organs[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 127-132

 

Characteristics and Environment Risk Assessment of PCBs in Multimedia Environment of the Electronic Waste Dismantling Venues  PDF download
Yang Yan, Wang Zongqing, Wang Qiong, Zhao Jie, Yu Yunjiang, Li Dinglong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130701001
Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, which have strong biological toxic effects. This study collected samples from multi-media environment (air, soil, drinking water, food, etc.) from a manually dismantling area and an incineration area of a typical e-waste recycling area in China and the levels of 15 PCB homologues were analyzed using principal component / factor method. The toxicity of PCBs homologues in two dismantling areas in environmental media was evaluated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) that were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results showed that PCB homologues concentrations in the atmosphere, soil, drinking water, crop and agricultural samples of the study area were higher than those in the same media which were reported previously, with the highest concentrations of PCB047 and PCB171. The proportion of PCB047, PCB171 in manual dismantling area were 2% to 87% and in incineration area is 2%~90%. The source analysis showed that the source of the PCBs was similar except PCB126 in manual dismantling area and PCB114 in incineration area. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) evaluation results showed that the atmospheric ΣTEQPCBs was highest in the region. The ΣTEQPCBs in the environmental media of the incineration area were higher than those of manual dismantling area except the Dried Sweet Potato, and the toxicity equivalents of TEQPCB126 and TEQPCB169 were the highest.
Citation: Yang Yan, Wang Zongqing, Wang Qiong, Zhao Jie, Yu Yunjiang, Li Dinglong Characteristics and Environment Risk Assessment of PCBs in Multimedia Environment of the Electronic Waste Dismantling Venues [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 133-144
Protective Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Formaldehyde-induced Damage in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  PDF download
Wang Mingke, Chen Shuanghong, Pan Huxiang, Ba Jianbo, Tao Yonghua
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130722002
Abstract: To investigate the effect of formaldehyde on the cell viability of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B),and examine the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine(NAC), BEAS-2B cells were treated for 24 h by different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150,200,300 and 400 μmol?L-1) of formaldehyde in different times(0, 6, 24 and 48 h) by 200 μmol?L-1 formaldehyde. In order to study the effect of NAC on the formaldehyde-induced cell damage, BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmol L-1) of NAC for 1 h or treated for different times (pretreated with 3 and 1 h, simultaneous treated, posttreated with 1 and 3 h) by 1 mmol L-1 NAC, and exposed to 200 μmol?L-1 formaldehyde (all group treated by formaldehyde for 24 h). Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) or under an inverted phase-contrast microscope. Results showed that formaldehyde can induce BEAS-2B cells death in a dose-dependent manner. After treated with 200 μmol?L-1 formaldehyde for 6 h,the cell survival rate was significantly lower than that of the control group (p <0.05), and a time-dependent decline in survival of formaldehyde-treated cells was detected. NAC attenuated the decline in survival rate of BEAS-2B cells induced by formaldehyde at different concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, and had an antagonistic action on formaldehyde-induced cell damage at different times. Moreover, in our experiment no significant differences of cell viability were observed between the NAC groups at different times. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the viability of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to formaldehyde declines in a dose and time-dependent manner, and NAC has a protective effect in a dose-dependent manner.
Citation: Wang Mingke, Chen Shuanghong, Pan Huxiang, Ba Jianbo, Tao Yonghua Protective Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Formaldehyde-induced Damage in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 145-152
Effects of Lead Acetate on the Autophagy and Apoptosis of the Rat Insuloma Cell INS 1   PDF download
Fu Rong, Sun Li, Wang Xiaoli, Hu Shitao, Ji Hong, Rong Haiqin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130808002
Abstract: To study the effect of the environmental heavy metal pollutant lead on the autophagy and apoptosis of the rat insuloma cells INS 1 and their probable molecular mechanisms, the INS 1 cells were exposed to lead acetate with different concentration, the viabilities of the cells were determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of the markers of autophagy and apoptosis and the related proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) kit was used to detect the intracellular ROS. ROS scavenger N acetylcysteine (NAC) was used to pretreat the cells to determine the effects of lead on the autophagy and apoptosis of INS 1 cells. By analyzing the results with statistical software SPSS 17.0, compared with the control group, the viability of INS 1 cells which were treated with lead acetate, decreased in a time and dose dependent manner (p<0.05). The expression of autophagy and apoptosis markers were enhanced with the concentration of lead acetate increasing. However, the markers of mTOR signal chain were no significant change. It was interesting to found that the effect of lead on the autophagy and apoptosis of INS 1 cells were decreased after they were pretreated with NAC. Thus, it was deduced that lead acetate may induce autophagy and apoptosis in INS 1 cells via an mTOR independent pathway. The probable mechanism was stimulating an increase of ROS.[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 153-158
Cytotoxicity of Glyphosate to GC-1 Mice Spermatogonium and Antagonistic Effect of N-acetylcysteine  PDF download
Zeng Ming, Huang Ting, Yi Jiping, Zhong Caigao, Guan Lan, Wang An, Liu Xinmin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130906001
Abstract: To study the cytotoxicity of 41% aqueous glyphosate solution (Roundup) to mice spermatogonium (GC-1 spgs) and the antagonistic and protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the cultured GC-1 spgs were divided into groups: normal control group, Roundup groups (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mg?L-1) and NAC intervention group (10 mmol?L-1 NAC+90 mg?L-1 Roundup). MTT assay was used to measure relative viability of GC-1 sags, Giemsa staining was used to observe the morphological features of GC-1 spgs, DNA damage of GC-1 spgs was detected by using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and the activities of leaking lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the cytoplasm, the cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and the malonic aldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured by colorimetry method. Results indicated that Roundup induced the decrease of cell viability (p<0.01) and the increase of the positive rate of comet-like cells (p<0.01) with a dose-dependent manner. Compared with controls, Roundup could increase the leakage of LDH (p<0.05, except for 60 mg?L-1 group) and cellular MDA levels (p<0.05), and reduce cellular SOD activities (p<0.05) and GSH levels (p<0.05). NAC pretreatment could antagonize the cytotoxicity of Roundup. It is demonstrated that Roundup injures GC-1 spgs in the concentration range of 60 mg?L-1 to 180 mg?L-1. The mechanism may include that Roundup induces oxidative stress and results in increase of cell membrane penetrability and DNA damage. NAC could protect GC-1 spgs against glyphosate injury by inhibiting oxidation.
Citation: Zeng Ming, Huang Ting, Yi Jiping, Zhong Caigao, Guan Lan, Wang An, Liu Xinmin Cytotoxicity of Glyphosate to GC-1 Mice Spermatogonium and Antagonistic Effect of N-acetylcysteine [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 159-166
A Preliminary Study on Demethylation Epigenetic Toxicity of Environmental Samples from Typical Water-polluted Area   PDF download
Peng Linglong, Yang Yongjian, Wang Xianliang, Wang Feifei, Lu Zhanlu, Qian Yan, Man Jianghong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130714001
Abstract: The integrated epigenetic toxicity of environmental samples including surface water, groundwater and soil was studied from the aspect of demethylation capacity. By artificial methylated processing, pEGFP-C3 plasmid was obtained C3 plasmid whose fluorescent protein gene promoter region was highly methylated and then transfected into HepG-2 cells. As transfection had been finished, the transfected cell strain (EGFR HepG2) as the main tool carrier was co-cultured with test substance. Finally, quantitative evaluation based on the green fluorescence intensity of cells can be used to measure the demethylating function of the test chemical. At the same time, composition of the sample extraction was scanned, detected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). There were seven of the nine test samples showing strong demethylation epigenetic toxicity, whose range on demethylation epigenetic toxic equivalency was from 0.065 to 0.257 μmol?L-1 5-Aza-CdR, accounting for 78% of the total nine samples. Among four samples with excessive standard content from soil or sediment, observable demethylation epigenetic toxicity can be detected in three samples. Finally, test results from environmental samples epigenetic toxicity had a basically consistent trend with environmental analysis results. The results indicated that a part of environmental samples with non-negligible epigenetic toxicity had good ability of demethylation.
Citation: Peng Linglong, Yang Yongjian, Wang Xianliang, Wang Feifei, Lu Zhanlu, Qian Yan, Man Jianghong A Preliminary Study on Demethylation Epigenetic Toxicity of Environmental Samples from Typical Water-polluted Area [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 167-173
Study on Reproducibility of Evaluation Method for Combined Effects in the Measure of Algae Infrared Radiation for Acute Toxicity  PDF download
Guo Weihua, Qian Jianwei, Wu Yulong, Yang Cheng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130122001
Abstract: Evaluation method for combined toxicity effects is the core part of the measure of algae infrared radiation for acute toxicity. The stability of this method decides the use efficiency and promotional value of this testing technology. To research stability of this method, Selenastrum capricornutum and C6H6, C6H8, C8H10, C6H5Cl, CHCl3 had been used in the experiment. According to testing the difference in temperature of the algae to combinations of five kinds of chemicals, combined effects and the reproducibility of experimental results were analyzed, then evaluation effect of the method of combined deviation coefficient was judged. The results showed that in combinations of two drugs the reproducibility in five groups were 50%, which in other five groups were 75%, and the average reproducibility in ten groups was 62.5%; in ternary combinations, the reproducibility was 50% and 100% for each group, and other groups were 75%, so the average reproducibility in ten groups was 75%. The reproducibility in three groups was 100%, other groups were 75% and 100%, and the average reproducibility in five groups was 85% in quaternary combinations; the reproducibility in combinations of five drugs was 100%. The average reproducibility of all the combinations was 73.1%. The rates of reproducibility of 19 combinations were greater than that of the threshold, accounting for 73.1% of all 26 combinations. There was a positive correlation between the increase in the number of drugs and the reproducibility of combined. By means of above results, algae infrared evaluation method of combined effects had better stability for the analysis of the combined effects of toxic and hazardous substances.
Citation: Guo Weihua, Qian Jianwei, Wu Yulong, Yang ChengBioavailability of Cu to Medakain Xiangjiang with Biotic Ligand Model[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2014, 9(1): 174-179
 
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