塑料添加剂的环境迁移、毒性测试与风险筛查:进展与挑战

华英迪, 许宜平, 赵高峰, 饶凯锋, 马梅, 王子健. 塑料添加剂的环境迁移、毒性测试与风险筛查:进展与挑战[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2024, 19(2): 93-111. doi: 10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20231211002
引用本文: 华英迪, 许宜平, 赵高峰, 饶凯锋, 马梅, 王子健. 塑料添加剂的环境迁移、毒性测试与风险筛查:进展与挑战[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2024, 19(2): 93-111. doi: 10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20231211002
Hua Yingdi, Xu Yiping, Zhao Gaofeng, Rao Kaifeng, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian. Environmental Migration, Toxicity Testing and Risk Screening for Plastic Additives:Advances and Challenges[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2024, 19(2): 93-111. doi: 10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20231211002
Citation: Hua Yingdi, Xu Yiping, Zhao Gaofeng, Rao Kaifeng, Ma Mei, Wang Zijian. Environmental Migration, Toxicity Testing and Risk Screening for Plastic Additives:Advances and Challenges[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2024, 19(2): 93-111. doi: 10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20231211002

塑料添加剂的环境迁移、毒性测试与风险筛查:进展与挑战

    作者简介: 华英迪(1997-),女,硕士研究生,研究方向为塑料添加剂环境暴露监测与风险评估,E-mail:ydhua_st@rcees.ac.cn
    通讯作者: 许宜平(1979-),女,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为水生态毒理学与环境风险评估。E-mail:ypxu@rcees.ac.cn;  赵高峰(1978-),男,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要研究方向为流域水环境中污染物溯源、风险评价与治理技术研究和标准化。E-mail:zhaogaofeng@caas.cn; 
  • 基金项目:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41977350,42377275);国家重点研发专项课题(2022YFC3902103);天津市科技计划项目(22YFYSHZ00060)

  • 中图分类号: X171.5

Environmental Migration, Toxicity Testing and Risk Screening for Plastic Additives:Advances and Challenges

    Corresponding authors: Xu Yiping ;  Zhao Gaofeng ; 
  • Fund Project:
  • 摘要: 塑料和微塑料污染日益严峻,因此引发了对塑料添加剂释放现象的广泛关注,塑料添加剂在固废处置和回收过程中会大量向环境中释放。塑料添加剂种类繁多,功能多样,数量庞大,其复杂性使得其评估工作面临巨大挑战,尤其是目前塑料添加剂的风险评估工作尚未建立起完善的体系。本研究对现有塑料添加剂的释放迁移研究、毒性测试及风险预测方法进行梳理,并基于塑料添加剂在种类、功能、添加量、监管、数据可用性等方面对公开信息的塑料添加剂逐级筛查,最终从1万多种现有塑料添加剂中筛选出106种值得关注的未监管添加剂物质。然后综合以下4项危害性指标,包括基于QSAR模型预测的物质毒性作用方式和危害等级、各化学品机构评估的PBT/PMT性质(持久性、生物累积性、迁移性、毒性)、生态毒性数据可用性、是否纳入化学品未来评估计划(CoRAP,ECHA),使用毒理学优先指数(ToxPi)方法按照等权重计算综合得分并排序,通过层次聚类分析对其进行优先级分类,提出相应风险评估优先序和研究关注的建议。结果表明,这其中很多尚未监管的塑料添加剂物质的潜在生态风险可能被低估。最后,我们提出对微塑料未来的研究挑战应主要聚焦在填补危害数据缺口和技术方法空白,包括其迁移释放机制、环境转化、混合效应及对生态系统的潜在影响等方面。
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  • 录用日期:  2024-02-20

塑料添加剂的环境迁移、毒性测试与风险筛查:进展与挑战

    通讯作者: 许宜平(1979-),女,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为水生态毒理学与环境风险评估。E-mail:ypxu@rcees.ac.cn;  赵高峰(1978-),男,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要研究方向为流域水环境中污染物溯源、风险评价与治理技术研究和标准化。E-mail:zhaogaofeng@caas.cn; 
    作者简介: 华英迪(1997-),女,硕士研究生,研究方向为塑料添加剂环境暴露监测与风险评估,E-mail:ydhua_st@rcees.ac.cn
  • 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,中国科学院饮用水科学与技术重点实验室,北京 100085;
  • 2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049;
  • 3. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;
  • 4. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085
基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目(41977350,42377275);国家重点研发专项课题(2022YFC3902103);天津市科技计划项目(22YFYSHZ00060)

摘要: 塑料和微塑料污染日益严峻,因此引发了对塑料添加剂释放现象的广泛关注,塑料添加剂在固废处置和回收过程中会大量向环境中释放。塑料添加剂种类繁多,功能多样,数量庞大,其复杂性使得其评估工作面临巨大挑战,尤其是目前塑料添加剂的风险评估工作尚未建立起完善的体系。本研究对现有塑料添加剂的释放迁移研究、毒性测试及风险预测方法进行梳理,并基于塑料添加剂在种类、功能、添加量、监管、数据可用性等方面对公开信息的塑料添加剂逐级筛查,最终从1万多种现有塑料添加剂中筛选出106种值得关注的未监管添加剂物质。然后综合以下4项危害性指标,包括基于QSAR模型预测的物质毒性作用方式和危害等级、各化学品机构评估的PBT/PMT性质(持久性、生物累积性、迁移性、毒性)、生态毒性数据可用性、是否纳入化学品未来评估计划(CoRAP,ECHA),使用毒理学优先指数(ToxPi)方法按照等权重计算综合得分并排序,通过层次聚类分析对其进行优先级分类,提出相应风险评估优先序和研究关注的建议。结果表明,这其中很多尚未监管的塑料添加剂物质的潜在生态风险可能被低估。最后,我们提出对微塑料未来的研究挑战应主要聚焦在填补危害数据缺口和技术方法空白,包括其迁移释放机制、环境转化、混合效应及对生态系统的潜在影响等方面。

English Abstract

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